Summary: Journal of Applied
© 2003 British
Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An ecosystem-based approach to management: using
individual behaviour to predict the indirect effects of
Antarctic krill fisheries on penguin foraging
SUZANNE H. ALONZO,* PAUL V. SWITZER and MARC MANGEL
*Institute of Marine Sciences and Department of Applied Math and Statistics and the Center for Stock Assessment
Research, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA; and Department of
Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920, USA
1. Changes in species'abundance and distributions caused by human disturbances can
have indirect effects on other species in a community. Although ecosystem approaches
to management are becoming increasingly prevalent, they require a fuller understand-
ing of how individual behaviour determines interactions within and between species.
2. Ecological interactions involving krill are of major importance to many species
within the Antarctic. Despite extensive knowledge of the ecosystem that they occupy,