Summary: Supporting Information
Khila and Abouheif 10.1073/pnas.0807351105
Fig. S1. Patterns of Vasa protein localization in the oocytes of A. rudis, M. americana and L. niger queens and workers. Green color marks Vasa protein; red
marks F-actin and blue marks Nuclei. Arrow heads indicate correct Vasa localization; asterisks indicate impaired Vasa localization. In the queens of L. niger (A),
M. americana (C), and A. rudis (E), posterior localization Vasa (A12, C12, and E12) indicates viable oocytes, whereas the lack Vasa localization (A34; C34,
and E34) indicates trophic oocytes. In the workers of L. niger (B), M. americana (D), and A. rudis (F), correct Vasa localization (D1) indicates viable oocytes;
impaired Vasa localization (B12; D23) indicates failed oocytes, while absence of Vasa localization (B34, D45, and F14) indicates trophic oocytes.
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Fig. S2. Patterns of nanos mRNA localization in the oocytes of A. rudis, M. Americana, and Lasius niger queens and workers. Arrow heads indicate correct nanos
localization; asterisks indicate impaired nanos localization. NC, nurse cells. In the queens of A. rudis (A), M. americana (B), and L. niger (C), nanos mRNA is tightly
localized to the posterior pole of viable oocytes (arrowheads). (D) Ovariole of A. rudis orphaned workers showing nanos expression throughout oogenesis. Nanos
posterior localization (arrowheads) indicates viable oocytes, while the absence of nanos localization indicates trophic oocytes. nanos impaired localization in
M. americana (E) and L. niger (F) indicate failed oocytes while nanos absence from the posterior in M. americana (G) and L. niger (H) indicates trophic oocytes.
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Fig. S3. Morphological assessment of embryonic development in A. rudis queen- and worker-laid eggs. Asterisks indicate embryonic defects. (A and B) Embryos
produced by the queen showing normal development during gastrulation (A) and late segmentation (B). (C and D) Embryos produced by the workers, showing
axis defects during gastrulation (C) and segmentation (D).
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Table S1. Pattern and frequency of oocyte production in A. rudis, M. americana, and L. niger.
Viable (Vasa ) Trophic (Vasa ) Failed (Vasa*)