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MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser
 

Summary: MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES
Mar Ecol Prog Ser
Vol. 390: 129­135, 2009
doi: 10.3354/meps08183
Published September 18
INTRODUCTION
Mangrove ecosystems are one of the world's most
valuable (Costanza et al. 1997) and most threatened
(Valiela et al. 2001) ecosystems. Mangrove ecosystems
are declining globally at rates of about 2.1% yr­1
(Valiela et al. 2001), the major causes of this loss being
replacement of mangrove areas by aquaculture ponds,
logging for wood and charcoal, and reclamation (Cos-
tanza et al. 1997, Mumby et al. 2004). Mangrove disap-
pearance leads to increased vulnerability of coastal
areas to flooding and storms and loss of harvestable
resources and biodiversity. Mangrove regression has
been particularly acute in Asia, where 36% of the orig-
inal area covered by mangroves has been lost (Fortes
1988, Valiela et al. 2001). Realization of the loss of

  

Source: Alberto, Filipe - Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve

 

Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology; Biology and Medicine