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Applied Soil Ecology 27 (2004) 4754 Differential effects of butyric acid on nematodes from

Summary: Applied Soil Ecology 27 (2004) 47­54
Differential effects of butyric acid on nematodes from
four trophic groups
M. Browninga, C. Dawsona, S.R. Alma, J.H. Gorrėsb, J.A. Amadorb,
a Department of Plant Sciences, University of Rhode Island, 9 E. Alumni Avenue, Suite 7, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
b Laboratory of Soil Ecology and Microbiology, Coastal Institute in Kingston, Greenhouse Road,
University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
Received 18 September 2003; accepted 16 March 2004
Butyric acid, which is produced through fermentation of organic matter by anaerobic soil bacteria, possesses nematicidal
properties. We investigated how the concentration of butyric acid in solution and gas phase affected the survival of 12 nematode
species from four trophic groups. Our hypothesis was that survival of free-living and plant parasitic nematodes would differ,
since free-living nematodes have shown some adaptation to survival in anaerobic soil environments.
A 2-day incubation in sand amended with 0.88 mg butyric acid g-1 reduced plant parasitic and fungivorous nematodes by
84­100% as compared to untreated controls, whereas a concentration of 8.8 mg butyric acid g-1 was necessary to significantly
reduce bacterivorous nematodes (70­98%). Sensitivity of entomogenous nematodes was variable, with Heterorhabditis ad-
versely affected by 0.88 mg butyric acid g-1 sand, resulting in a 59% reduction, while Steinernema required a concentration
of 8.8 mg butyric acid g-1 sand to see a significant decline (85%). Results were similar when nematodes were exposed to the
gas phase of butyric acid for 7 days. The vapor from a 0.1 M solution reduced plant-parasitic and fungivorous nematodes by
89­96% while the vapor from a 1 M solution of butyric acid reduced entomogenous nematodes by 94­99%. Bacterivorous


Source: Amador, José A. - Department of Natural Resources Science, University of Rhode Island


Collections: Environmental Management and Restoration Technologies; Environmental Sciences and Ecology