Summary: Gaze direction modulates visual aftereffects in depth and color
Dylan R. Nieman a,*, Ryusuke Hayashi a
, Richard A. Andersen a
, Shinsuke Shimojo a,b
Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
Human and Information Science Laboratory, NTT Communication Science Laboratories, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan
Received 26 April 2004; received in revised form 17 May 2005
Prior physiological studies indicate that gaze direction modulates the gain of neural responses to visual stimuli. Here, we test gaze
modulation in the perceptual domain using color and depth aftereffects. After confirming retinotopy of the effects, we employed a
balanced alternating adaptation paradigm (adaptation alternates between opponent stimuli) to demonstrate that opposite color and
depth aftereffects can co-develop at the same retinal location for different gaze directions. The results provide strong evidence for (a)
gaze modulation of aftereffects, (b) generality of gaze modulation across two visual attributes, and (c) perceptual correlates of the
modulation of neural activity by gaze direction.
Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Color aftereffect; Depth aftereffect; Gaze-modulation
Due to frequent spontaneous saccades, the retinal im-