Summary: O(log n)-time Overlay Network Construction
from Graphs with Out-degree 1
and Yinghua Wu1
Yale University Department of Computer Science,
51 Prospect St, New Haven CT 06511, USA.
Abstract. A fast self-stabilizing algorithm is described to rapidly con-
struct a balanced overlay network from a directed graph initially with
out-degree 1, a natural starting case that arises in peer-to-peer systems
where each node attempts to join by contacting some single other node.
This algorithm constructs a balanced search tree in time O(W + log n),
where W is the key length and n is the number of nodes, improving by a
factor of log n on the previous bound starting from a general graph,
while retaining the properties of low contention and short messages.
Our construction includes an improved version of the distributed Pa-
tricia tree structure of Angluin et al. , which we call a double-headed
radix tree. This data structure responds gracefully to node failures and
supports search, predecessor, and successor operations in O(W) time
with smoothly distributed load for predecessor and successor operations.