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Fundamentals of graded ferroic materials and devices Z.-G. Ban and S. P. Alpay
 

Summary: Fundamentals of graded ferroic materials and devices
Z.-G. Ban and S. P. Alpay
Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut,
Storrs, Connecticut 06269
J. V. Mantese
Delphi Research Laboratories, Shelby Township, Michigan 48315
Received 22 October 2002; revised manuscript received 21 January 2003; published 6 May 2003
A generalized Landau-Ginzburg model is constructed and used to develop a methodology for analyzing
graded ferroic materials. Material system inhomogeneities are assumed to arise from compositional, tempera-
ture, or stress gradients. These spatial nonuniformities are shown to give rise to local order parameters having
corresponding spatial variation. Functionally graded ferroic systems are thus found to result in nonuniform free
energies with attendant internal potentials, the latter of which are evidenced by displacements of the materials's
stimulus-response hysteresis plots along the response axis e.g., polarization, magnetization, or strain axis .
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.67.184104 PACS number s : 64.60. i, 75.60.Ej, 77.80. e
I. INTRODUCTION
Ferroics form an essential subgroup of functional or
smart materials whose physical properties are sensitive to
changes in external conditions such as temperature, pressure,
electric, and magnetic fields. Ferroelectric, ferromagnetic,
and ferroelastic materials are the best-known examples of

  

Source: Alpay, S. Pamir - Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut

 

Collections: Materials Science