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Motor Patterns and Kinematics During Backward Walking in the Pacific Giant Salamander: Evidence for Novel Motor Output
 

Summary: Motor Patterns and Kinematics During Backward Walking in the
Pacific Giant Salamander: Evidence for Novel Motor Output
MIRIAM A. ASHLEY-ROSS AND GEORGE V. LAUDER
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine,
California 92697
Ashley-Ross, Miriam A. and George V. Lauder. Motor patterns and that the basic pattern of forward locomotion may be produced
kinematics during backward walking in the Pacific Giant Salamander: by spinal circuits (Grillner and Wallen 1985; Grillner and
evidence for novel motor output. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 30473060, Zangger 1979) with input from supraspinal centers and pro-
1997. Kinematic and motor patterns during forward and backward prioceptive and cutaneous feedback necessary to produce
walking in the salamander Dicamptodon tenebrosus were compared
finely controlled stepping (e.g., Andersson and Grillner 1981;to determine whether the differences seen in mammals also apply to
Armstrong 1988; Conway et al. 1987). Thus forward walkinga lower vertebrate with sprawling posture and to measure the flexibil-
has been used as a model system with which to understandity of motor output by tetrapod central pattern generators. During
the generation of relatively simple behaviors. Numerous stud-treadmill locomotion, electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from
hindlimb muscles of Dicamptodon while simultaneous high-speed ies have detailed the patterns of limb kinematics (e.g., Ashley-
video records documented movement of the body, thigh, and crus Ross 1994a; Goslow et al. 1973, 1981, 1989; Goslow and Van
and allowed EMGs to be synchronized to limb movements. In forward De Graaff 1982; Hildebrand 1976, 1980; Jenkins and Weijs
locomotion, the trunk was lifted above the treadmill surface. The 1979; Johnston and Bekoff 1992) and muscle synergies (Ash-
pelvic girdle and trunk underwent smooth side-to-side oscillations
ley-Ross 1995; Bekoff et al. 1975, 1987b; Engberg and Lund-throughout the stride. At the beginning of the stance phase, the femur

  

Source: Ashley-Ross, Miriam A. - Department of Biology, Wake Forest University

 

Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology; Biology and Medicine