 
Summary: Topological perturbation of complex
networks
Effects on the global topology:
ˇ increase of path lengths,
ˇ separation into isolated
clusters.
More connected network  less effect of an edge removal
But bridges are definite points of vulnerability!
The effect of a node removal depends on the number and
characteristics of its edges.
Perturbations in complex systems can deactivate some of the edges or
nodes.
Edge loss: the edge is deleted
Node loss: the node and all its edges are deleted
Resilience to perturbations
Topological resilience studied in the literature:
the remaining nodes are still connected.
the average distance does not increase.
Ex. Propose other measures of resilience.
Testing resilience to incremental damage:
