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Copyright 2001 Psychonomic Society, Inc. 168 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

Summary: Copyright 2001 Psychonomic Society, Inc. 168
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
2001, 8 (1), 168-176
There has been much recent interest in the hypothesis
that performance in many cognitive tasks is simultane-
ously mediated by qualitatively distinct processing sys-
tems. Arguments for multiple systems have come from
such diverse fields as memory (Mishkin, Malamut, &
Bachevalier, 1984; Schacter, 1987; Squire, 1992), reason-
ing (Sloman, 1996), motor learning (Willingham, Nissen,
& Bullemer, 1989), discrimination learning (Kendler &
Kendler, 1962), and function learning (Hayes & Broad-
bent, 1988). In general, these studies have suggested at
least two distinct types of learning systems: (1) an explicit,
rule-based system tied to language functions and con-
scious awareness, and (2) an implicit or habit-forming sys-
tem, which may not have access to conscious awareness.
Within the domain of category learning, there also
were early arguments for multiple systems. For example,
Brooks (1978) hypothesized that category learning is


Source: Ashby, F. Gregory - Department of Psychology, University of California at Santa Barbara


Collections: Biology and Medicine; Computer Technologies and Information Sciences