Summary: In situ investigation of the selenization kinetics of CuGa precursors
using time-resolved high-temperature X-ray diffraction
W.K. Kim a
, E.A. Payzant b
, T.J. Anderson a,, O.D. Crisalle a
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Available online 19 December 2006
In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the reaction mechanism and kinetics of CuGaSe2 formation from CuGa
precursors during selenization. The precursor films were deposited in a migration enhanced molecular beam epitaxial reactor on Mo-coated thin
glass substrates. During the selenization CuSe forms in the temperature range of approximately 260 to 370 °C, and the onset of formation of
CuGaSe2 occurred at approximately 300 °C. The kinetic analysis using a modified Avrami model suggests the formation of CuGaSe2 from
selenization of CuGa films follows a one-dimensional diffusion-controlled reaction with an apparent activation energy of 109 (±7) kJ/mol.
© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: X-ray diffraction; CuGaSe2; Selenization; Avrami model
Chalcopyrite Cu(InGa)Se2 (CIGS) is a proven absorber