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Seismic phenomena associated with the 1996 Vatnajokull eruption, central Iceland

Summary: Seismic phenomena associated with the 1996
VatnajoČkull eruption, central Iceland
K.I. Konstantinoua,*, G. Noletb
, W.J. Morganb
, R.M. Allenb
, M.J. Pritcharda
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
Department of Geosciences, Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Received 15 September 1999; received in revised form 23 February 2000; accepted 23 February 2000
During late September 1996, a major eruption took place at the NW part of the VatnajoČkull glacier in central Iceland. The
eruption was preceded by intense seismic activity, which began with a Mw 5:6 earthquake two days previously. Two very
active volcanic systems, BaÂrdarbunga and GrimsvoČtn, are situated in that area underneath the permanent ice cap. The volca-
noseismic phenomena associated with the eruption were recorded on both temporary (HOTSPOT) and permanent (SIL) seismic
networks, covering most parts of the country. The recorded events were categorised, according to their waveform shape and
frequency content, into three groups: (1) low-frequency events; (2) mixed-frequency events; and (3) volcanic tremor. The large
earthquake at BaÂrdarbunga volcano, which initiated the seismic activity before the eruption, was located inside the caldera and
had the characteristics of a non-double couple event. The epicentres of the earthquake swarm that followed it initially delineated


Source: Allen, Richard M. - Seismological Laboratory, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California at Berkeley


Collections: Geosciences