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and motivation, to more dorsal frontostriatal circuits, associated with cognition and action (Alexander et al., 1986; Haber and
 

Summary: and motivation, to more dorsal frontostriatal circuits, associated
with cognition and action (Alexander et al., 1986; Haber and
Knutson, 2010; Figure 1).
Although the widely distributed and diffuse nature of its projec-
tion system to large parts of the forebrain concurs with an account
of dopamineinrelativelynon-specificterms,suchasservingactiva-
tion or energization, it is also clear that dopamine does not simply
amplify (or suppress) all forebrain activity in a functionally non-
specific manner.Indeed extensive evidence indicates that effects of
dopamine depend on specific task demands and their underlying
neural systems (Robbins, 2000; Cools et al., 2001a; Frank et al.,
2004). In line with these insights, we suggest here that changes in
appetitive motivation, which may result from changes in neuro-
chemical activity, for example, due to stress, fatigue, or neuropsy-
chiatric abnormality,also have functionally selective consequences
for cognition.
More specifically, we put forward the working hypothesis
that appetitive motivation might promote selectively our abil-
ity to switch between different tasks, providing us with some of
the cognitive flexibility that is required in our constantly chang-

  

Source: Aarts, Esther - Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California at Berkeley

 

Collections: Biology and Medicine