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Copyright 2004 Psychonomic Society, Inc. 582 Memory & Cognition

Summary: Copyright 2004 Psychonomic Society, Inc. 582
Memory & Cognition
2004, 32 (4), 582-591
The ability to categorize is critical to the survival of all
organisms (Ashby & Maddox, 1998). Every day, organ-
isms make thousands of categorization judgments and are
often remarkably accurate. A growing body of research
suggests that, in humans, the learning of different types of
category structures is mediated by different categoriza-
tion and memory systems (e.g., Ashby & Ell, 2001; Erick-
son & Kruschke, 1998; Pickering, 1997; Reber & Squire,
1994; Smith, Patalano, & Jonides, 1998; however, see
Nosofsky & Johansen, 2000). Most multiple-systems
theorists agree that one system is explicit and at least one
is implicit. For example, the competition between verbal
and implicit systems (COVIS) model assumes an explicit
hypothesis-testing system and an implicit procedural
learning system (Ashby, Alfonso-Reese, Turken, & Wal-
dron, 1998). The explicit hypothesis-testing system is as-
sumed to dominate the learning of rule-based category


Source: Ashby, F. Gregory - Department of Psychology, University of California at Santa Barbara
Maddox, W. Todd - Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin


Collections: Biology and Medicine; Computer Technologies and Information Sciences