 
Summary: The Power of Unentanglement
Scott Aaronson #
MIT
Salman Beigi
MIT
Andrew Drucker
MIT
Bill Fe#erman
University of Chicago
Peter Shor
MIT
Abstract
The class QMA (k), introduced by Kobayashi et al., consists of all languages that can be
verified using k unentangled quantum proofs. Many of the simplest questions about this class
have remained embarrassingly open: for example, can we give any evidence that k quantum
proofs are more powerful than one? Does QMA (k) = QMA (2) for k # 2? Can QMA (k)
protocols be amplified to exponentially small error?
In this paper, we make progress on all of the above questions.
. We give a protocol by which a verifier can be convinced that a 3Sat formula of size m is
satisfiable, with constant soundness, given
