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WHITENESS EVALUATIONS ON TINTED AND FWA ADDED PAPERS
 

Summary: WHITENESS EVALUATIONS ON TINTED AND FWA
ADDED PAPERS
Burak Aksoy, Paul D. Fleming* and Margaret K. Joyce
Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Imaging
Center for Coating Development
Western Michigan University
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
* Corresponding author. Tel.: (269) 276 3511; fax: (269) 276 3501
E-mail address: dan.fleming@wmich.edu
2
ABSTRACT
Many whiteness formulas have been proposed over the years. Attempts have been made to standardize the
calculation of whiteness, although colorimetry of fluorescent samples is still problematic. Most formulae
used today assess relative whiteness. These formulae are generally meaningless when applied to colored
samples. They are mostly unsuccessful in assessing tinted samples with chromaticities placed near the
borders of "white" colors. Previously, we showed that large differences in CIE whiteness can occur when
the colors of papers are slightly altered from neutral white to varying "shades" of white. Observers
assessed the whiteness of these tinted papers as similar in appearance to one another.
Here, different colorants were added to coating formulations and applied to a #1 publication
grade base paper. Optical properties were measured and CIE, Hunter, Ganz and Fleming-Aksoy whiteness

  

Source: Abubakr, Said - Department of Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Imaging, Western Michigan University

 

Collections: Engineering