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Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 letters to nature

Summary: Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998
letters to nature
NATURE |VOL 394 |27 AUGUST 1998 887
prepared for Caucasian faces (students at St Andrews University, 25 male, age
1923 years, mean 21.0 years; 30 female, age 1922 years, mean 20.6 years).
Photographs were converted to digital format (Kodak Photo-CD) and 174
feature points on salient facial landmarks (for example, nose-tip) were defined
manually for each face14,15
. The average face shapes of the male and female
Japanese and Caucasian face subsets were calculated from the feature points.
The position of eye centres was standardized for corresponding average male
and female face shapes. Each original face image was then warped to the shape
of the corresponding average face and the resultant reshaped face images were
blended together by averaging colour and intensity values of pixels at corre-
sponding image locations14,15
(Fig. 1). The vector difference between correspond-
ing feature points on the male and female averages was increased or decreased by
50% to create feminized and masculinized shapes. The image of the composite
face was then warped into these new face shapes to create image pairs with


Source: Andersen, Richard - Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology
Snyder, Larry - Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University in St. Louis


Collections: Biology and Medicine