Summary: Effect of wind variability on topographic waves: Lake Kinneret case
and Yitzhaq Mahrer1
Received 11 May 2007; accepted 29 October 2007; published 29 December 2007.
 We studied the winter wind driven circulation in Lake Kinneret (northern Israel) using
state of the art atmospheric (Regional Atmosphere Modeling System (RAMS)) and
oceanic (Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)) general circulation models. During
winter the lake is completely mixed and mainly forced by the passage of synoptic weather
systems. The lake's dynamic response was identified using various wind regimes. The
response of the lake to a uniform wind stress resulted in the formation of a double-gyre
circulation pattern. After removal of the wind stress, the double-gyre pattern slowly
rotated cyclonically (with a time period of several days) around the lake perimeter,
consistent with the pattern of the lowest-mode basin-scale topographic (vorticity) wave.
The use of RAMS-simulated wind fields resulted in a less symmetric structure of the
double-gyre pattern due to the presence of a curl in the wind field. Using various wind
regimes to force the lake indicated that the presence of a positive or negative curl in the