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ORIGINAL PAPER Electron free energy levels in oxidic solutions: relating

Electron free energy levels in oxidic solutions: relating
oxidation potentials in aqueous and non-aqueous systems
C. A. Angell
Received: 4 September 2008 /Revised: 16 December 2008 /Accepted: 17 December 2008
# Springer-Verlag 2009
Abstract We provide background to the problem of
describing the state of redox couples in different types of
solvent media ranging from acidic aqueous solutions to
high temperature molten silicates, pointing out the essential
similarity between these solvent media in Lewis acid­base
terms. We review the adaptation of the Gurney proton
energy level diagram approach to the case of electron
transfer processes. Using data from various spectroscopic
and analytical chemistry sources, we review the construc-
tion of electron free energy level diagrams for redox
couples in aqueous and non-aqueous systems using, as a
common reference, the potential of the oxygen gas (1 atm)/
oxide ion couple in the solution of interest. We emphasize
the anomalous effect of "oxide ion activity" (mean ionic


Source: Angell, C. Austen - Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University


Collections: Materials Science; Chemistry