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Author's personal copy Journal of Theoretical Biology 252 (2008) 694710

Summary: Author's personal copy
Journal of Theoretical Biology 252 (2008) 694≠710
Natural selection of altruism in inelastic viscous
homogeneous populations
Alan Grafen√, Marco Archetti
Zoology Department, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Received 9 October 2007; received in revised form 22 January 2008; accepted 22 January 2008
Available online 31 January 2008
Biological explanations are given of three main uninterpreted theoretical results on the selection of altruism in inelastic viscous
homogeneous populations, namely that non-overlapping generations hinder the evolution of altruism, fecundity effects are more
conducive to altruism than survival effects, and one demographic regime (so-called death≠birth) permits altruism whereas another (so-
called birth≠death) does not. The central idea is `circles of compensation', which measure how far the effects of density dependence
extend from a focal individual. Relatednesses can then be calculated that compensate for density dependence. There is very generally a
`balancing circle of compensation', at which the viscosity of the population slows up selection of altruism, but does not affect its
direction, and this holds for altruism towards any individual, not just immediate neighbours. These explanations are possible because of
recent advances in the theory of inclusive fitness on graphs. The assumption of node bitransitivity in that recent theory is relaxed to node
transitivity and symmetry of the dispersal matrix, and new formulae show how to calculate relatedness from dispersal and vice versa.
r 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Inclusive fitness; Population viscosity; Dispersal; Relatedness; Density dependence


Source: Archetti, Marco - Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University


Collections: Biology and Medicine