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Modeling and Verification of a Dual Chamber Implantable Pacemaker

Summary: Modeling and Verification of a Dual Chamber
Implantable Pacemaker
Zhihao Jiang, Miroslav Pajic, Salar Moarref, Rajeev Alur, Rahul Mangharam
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA
Abstract. The design and implementation of software for medical de-
vices is challenging due to their rapidly increasing functionality and the
tight coupling of computation, control, and communication. The safety-
critical nature and the lack of existing industry standards for verification,
make this an ideal domain for exploring applications of formal modeling
and analysis. In this study, we use a dual chamber implantable pace-
maker as a case study for modeling and verification of control algorithms
for medical devices in UPPAAL. We begin with detailed models of the
pacemaker, based on the specifications and algorithm descriptions from
Boston Scientific. We then define the state space of the closed-loop sys-
tem based on its heart rate and developed a heart model which can non-
deterministically cover the whole state space. For verification, we first
specify unsafe regions within the state space and verify the closed-loop
system against corresponding safety requirements. As stronger assertions
are attempted, the closed-loop unsafe state may result from healthy open-
loop heart conditions. Such unsafe transitions are investigated with two


Source: Alur, Rajeev - Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Pennsylvania


Collections: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences