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Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, New Delhi 2006 1 P.B. Loureno, P. Roca, C. Modena, S. Agrawal (Eds.), ISBN 972-8692-27-7

Summary: Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, New Delhi 2006 1
P.B. Lourenšo, P. Roca, C. Modena, S. Agrawal (Eds.), ISBN 972-8692-27-7
To make a rammed earth wall, soil is taken from the ground, poured into formwork and com-
pacted in layers, usually around 100mm deep. The formwork is then removed leaving a solid
wall. Historically this compaction was done manually, but modern rammed earth construction
takes advantage of pneumatic rammers to achieve the same result. Rammed earth has also seen a
revival as a modern construction technique, due to its low carbon content and inherent recycle-
ability. There is a need for the development of modelling methods for rammed earth structures,
both historic and new-build. In this paper we describe features of historic rammed earth, particu-
larly layering. We then detail a constitutive model for rammed earth and use it in finite element
analyses of walls built and tested in the laboratory. The finite element models are tuned to repli-
cate effects seen in the laboratory and the strength parameters required are compared to text-
book and sample test results.
Many World Heritage sites contain structures constructed from rammed earth. Examples in-
clude Muslim fortresses dating from the 8th century throughout Spain and North Africa, Bud-
dhist monasteries, some over 1000 years old in India, and parts of the Great Wall of China and
the Potala Palace in Lhasa.
Analysis of Historic Rammed Earth construction


Source: Augarde, Charles - School of Engineering, University of Durham


Collections: Engineering