 
Summary: 1
A Simple and Accurate Approximation to the SEP
of Rectangular QAM in Arbitrary Nakagamim
Fading Channels
Himal A. Suraweera, Student Member, IEEE, and Jean Armstrong, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract Recently, Karagiannidis presented a closedform
solution for an integral which can be used to compute the average
symbol error probability of general order rectangular quadrature
amplitude modulation (QAM) in Nakagamim fading channels
with integer fading parameters. In this letter, using an accurate
exponential bound for the Gaussian Qfunction, we derive a
simple approximate solution for that integral. In particular, the
solution can be used to compute the average SEP of general order
rectangular QAM over arbitrary Nakagamim fading. Numerical
results are presented to verify the accuracy of the solution.
Index Terms Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM),
symbol error probability, Nakagamim fading channels, bounds,
Gaussian Qfunction.
I. INTRODUCTION
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