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886 BioScience December 2010 / Vol. 60 No. 11 www.biosciencemag.org Historical Accumulation of

Summary: Articles
886 BioScience December 2010 / Vol. 60 No. 11 www.biosciencemag.org
Historical Accumulation of
Nonindigenous Forest Pests
in the Continental United States
Juliann E. aukEma, DEborah G. mcCullouGh, bEtsy Von hollE, anDrEw m. liEbholD,
kErry britton, anD susan J. FrankEl
Nonindigenous forest insects and pathogens affect a range of ecosystems, industries, and property owners in the United States. Evaluating temporal
patterns in the accumulation of these nonindigenous forest pests can inform regulatory and policy decisions. We compiled a comprehensive species
list to assess the accumulation rates of nonindigenous forest insects and pathogens established in the United States. More than 450 nonindigenous
insects and at least 16 pathogens have colonized forest and urban trees since European settlement. Approximately 2.5 established nonindigenous
forest insects per year were detected in the United States between 1860 and 2006. At least 14% of these insects and all 16 pathogens have caused
notable damage to trees. Although sap feeders and foliage feeders dominated the comprehensive list, phloem- and wood-boring insects and foliage
feeders were often more damaging than expected. Detections of insects that feed on phloem or wood have increased markedly in recent years.
Keywords: invasive pests, forest insects, forest pathogens, feeding guild, detection rates
Act (1912). Subsequent regulatory efforts arose from the
Organic Act (1944), the International Plant Protection
Convention (1952), the Federal Plant Pest Act (1957),
the National Environmental Policy Act (1970), and the
Plant Protection Act (2000). Within the United States,


Source: Aukema, Juliann E. - National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California at Santa Barbara


Collections: Environmental Sciences and Ecology