Summary: need for vaccines (14, 15). This technology could
accelerate the construction of live vaccine strains.
Many medically or industrially important mi-
crobes are difficult to manipulate genetically. This
has severely limited our understanding of patho-
genesis and our ability to exploit the knowledge
of microbial biology on a practical level. We hope
that the cycle presented here can be applied to
other species, to help solve these problems.
References and Notes
1. A. J. DaMassa, D. L. Brooks, H. E. Adler, Am. J. Vet. Res.
44, 322 (1983).
2. L. Manso-Silvan et al., Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59,
3. Manso-Silvan et al. (2) report the very recent
renaming of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies
mycoides Large Colony to Mycoplasma mycoides
4. C. Lartigue et al., Science 317, 632 (2007).
5. D. G. Gibson et al., Science 319, 1215 (2008).