Summary: Anesthesiology 2009; 111:10019 Copyright © 2009, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Halothane-induced Hypnosis Is Not Accompanied by
Inactivation of Orexinergic Output in Rodents
Heinrich Gompf, Ph.D.,* Jingqiu Chen, M.S., Yi Sun, M.D., Ph.D., Masashi Yanagisawa, M.D., Ph.D.,§
Gary Aston-Jones, Ph.D., Max B. Kelz, M.D., Ph.D.#
Background: One underexploited property of anesthetics is
their ability to probe neuronal regulation of arousal. At appro-
priate doses, anesthetics reversibly obtund conscious percep-
tion. However, individual anesthetic agents may accomplish
this by altering the function of distinct neuronal populations.
Previously the authors showed that isoflurane and sevoflurane
inhibit orexinergic neurons, delaying reintegration of sensory
perception as denoted by emergence. Here the authors study
the effects of halothane. As a halogenated alkane, halothane
differs structurally, has a nonoverlapping series of molecular
binding partners, and differentially modulates electrophysi-
ologic properties of several ion channels when compared with
its halogenated ether relatives.
Methods: c-Fos immunohistochemistry and in vivo electro-
physiology were used to assess neuronal activity. Anesthetic