Summary: TRENDS in Microbiology Vol.10 No.10 October 2002
http://tim.trends.com 0966-842X/02/$ see front matter Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. PII: S0966-842X(02)02451-4
Extracellular proteins promote the virulence of
bacterial pathogens of both plants and animals, and
`effector'proteins injected into host cells by type III
secretion systems (TTSSs) are particularly
important in the virulence of Gram-negative
bacteria. TTSSs use a highly conserved machinery
to secrete proteins through the bacterial envelope
and a more variable extracellular machinery to
translocate proteins through host barriers such
as the plant cell wall and plasma membrane.
The structure, assembly and regulation of TTSSs
have recently been reviewed .
Pathogens of animals that use TTSSs include
Yersinia, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.
Many effectors in these pathogens, such as the six
known Yersinia outer protein (Yop) effectors, target the