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Interwoven branches of the plant and fungal trees of

Summary: Letters
Interwoven branches of
the plant and fungal trees of
Just as the processes that drive natural selection are now rec-
ognized to manifest at levels of biological organization
above and below those of the individual with trait varia-
tion, differential rates of birth and death, and heredity per-
vasive from nucleic acids to cells to populations (Williams,
1966; Dawkins, 1976; Sober, 1984; Keller, 1999; Okasha,
2008) so too is co-evolution now viewed not just at the
level of species, but also at phylogenetic scales ranging from
genotypes to major clades (Thompson, 2005). Although
strict-sense co-cladogenesis remains a holy grail among
some biologists seeking to document reciprocal evolution-
ary change, researchers have begun to recognize that phylo-
genetic trees need not branch in parallel to indicate co-
evolutionary history. A broader view encompassing ecology
brings to light the ways in which co-evolutionary processes
can be subtle yet pervasive, rapid, and interlaced inexora-


Source: Arnold, A. Elizabeth - School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona


Collections: Biology and Medicine