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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEVICE AND MATERIALS RELIABILITY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, MARCH 2005 65 Conduction Band-Edge States Associated With
 

Summary: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEVICE AND MATERIALS RELIABILITY, VOL. 5, NO. 1, MARCH 2005 65
Conduction Band-Edge States Associated With
the Removal of d-State Degeneracies by the
Jahn­Teller Effect
Gerald Lucovsky, C. C. Fulton, Y. Zhang, Y. Zou, J. Luning, L. F. Edge, J. L. Whitten, R. J. Nemanich, H. Ade,
D. G. Schlom, V. V. Afanase'v, A. Stesmans, S. Zollner, D. Triyoso, and B. R. Rogers
Invited Paper
Abstract--X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is used to study
band edge electronic structure of high- transition metal (TM)
and trivalent lanthanide rare earth (RE) oxide gate dielectrics. The
lowest conduction band d -states in TiO2, ZrO2 and HfO2 are cor-
related with: 1) features in the O K1 edge, and 2) transitions from
occupied Ti 2p, Zr 3p and Hf 4p states to empty Ti 3d-, Zr 4d-,
and Hf 5d-states, respectively. The relative energies of d-state fea-
tures indicate that the respective optical bandgaps, Eopt (or equiv-
alently, Eg), and conduction band offset energy with respect to Si,
EB, scale monotonically with the d-state energies of the TM/RE
atoms. The multiplicity of d-state features in the Ti L2 3 spectrum
of TiO2, and in the derivative of the O K1 spectra for ZrO2 and
HfO2 indicate a removal of d-state degeneracies that results from

  

Source: Ade, Harald W.- Department of Physics, North Carolina State University

 

Collections: Physics