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Supplementary Methods False belief tasks

Summary: Supplementary Methods
False belief tasks
Story-based task. The story-based task consisted of 12 verbal stories. The stories first
related a character's awareness of one reality (e.g. Zack puts the milk in fridge), then the
character' unawareness of a change in reality (e.g. Zack leaves the room and Kim finishes the
milk with her cereal and throws the milk carton in the bin). For each story, four questions
were asked (each with a binary choice): (1) a false belief question (e.g. Where does Zack think
the milk carton is?), (2) a counterfactual question that does not call upon false belief reasoning
but makes formally similar reasoning demands (e.g. What if Kim had not had cereal, where
would the milk carton be?), (3) a memory question (e.g. Where was the milk carton at the
beginning?) and (4) a reality question (e.g. Where is the milk carton now?). Questions (3) and
(4) controlled for the incidental processing demands of the false belief reasoning task (i.e.
understanding, integrating and remembering the sequence of events).
Video-based task. The video-based, non-verbal false belief task was adapted from a
previous study1
. The task consisted of 12 false belief, 12 memory and 12 inhibition control
videos. The false belief videos showed a woman watching as a man placed a green object in
one of two boxes. The participants could not see which box contained the green object. The
woman then left the room and while she was away, the man swapped the two boxes. The
woman then returned and pointed to one of the boxes. In order to locate the green object, the


Source: Apperly, Ian - School of Psychology, University of Birmingham


Collections: Biology and Medicine