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Sample search results for: leishmaniose visceral calazar



Multi-Cellular Rosettes in the Mouse Visceral Endoderm Facilitate the Ordered Migration of Anterior Visceral

  Mathematics Websites

Summary: Multi-Cellular Rosettes in the Mouse Visceral Endoderm Facilitate the Ordered Migration of Anterior University Computing Laboratory, Oxford, United Kingdom, 5 Oxford Centre for Integrative Systems Biology that forms the outer layer of the egg-cylinder stage mouse embryo. The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE

Maini, Philip K.


ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION Visceral Fit: While in a Visceral State, Associated States of the World Seem More Likely


Summary: We propose that visceral states can influence beliefs through “visceral fit”: People will judge states of the world associated with their current visceral experience as more likely. We found that warmth influenced belief in global warming (Studies 1–3) and that thirst impacted forecasts of drought and desertification (Study 5). These effects emerged in a naturalistic setting (Study 1) and in experimental lab settings (Studies 2, 3, and 5). Studies 2–6 distinguished between 3 mechanistic accounts: temperature as information (Studies 2 and 3), conceptual accessibility (Studies 4 and 5), and fluency of simulation (Studies 6a and 6b). Studies 2 and 3 ruled out the temperature as information account. Feeling warm enhanced belief in global warming even when temperature was manipulated in an uninformative indoor setting, when participants ’ attention was first directed to the indoor temperature, and when participants ’ belief about the current outdoor temperature was statistically controlled. Studies 4 and 5 ruled out conceptual accessibility as the key mediator: Priming the corresponding concepts did not produce analogous effects on judgment. Studies 6a and 6b used a causal chain design and found support for a “simulational fluency ” account. Participants experiencing the visceral state of warmth constructed more fluent mental representations of hot (vs. cold) outdoor images, and those who were led to construe the same hot outdoor images more fluently believed more in global warming. Together, the results suggest that visceral states can influence one’s beliefs by making matching states of the world easier to simulate and therefore seem more likely.

Jane L. Risen; Clayton R. Critcher


Visceral Leishmaniasis with Endobronchial Involvement in an Immunocompetent Adult


Summary: Copyright © 2011 Konstantinos Kotsifas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by fever, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Cough may be a presenting symptom as well. However, pulmonary involvement is considered rare and mainly described in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of an immunocompetent adult whose clinical presentation was dominated by cough and hemoptysis. Bronchoscopy revealed a discreet polypoid mucosal endobronchial lesion whose biopsy yielded Leishmania amastigotes within histiocytes. Transbronchial needle biopsy of a right paratracheal lymph node was also positive. Leishmania amastigotes were also found on bone marrow and liver biopsies. Treatment with IV Amphotericin B was successful. In conclusion, cough should not be overlooked as a presenting symptom of visceral leishmaniasis and may be a sign of pulmonary involvement. 1.

Article Id; Konstantinos Kotsifas; Eugenios Metaxas; Ioannis Koutsouvelis; Athanassios Skoutelis; Panayiota Kara; George Tatsis


Moving with the beat: heart rate and visceral temperature of free-swimming and feeding

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: Moving with the beat: heart rate and visceral temperature of free-swimming and feeding bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii ) to measure changes in the heart rate ( fH) and visceral temperature (TV) during a two, greater relative heart masses, elevated metabolic rates, and are more difficult to handle than tropical

Schluter, Dolph


No evidence for association between SLC11A1 and visceral leishmaniasis in India

  University of Cambridge - Dspace

Summary: AbstractBackgroundSLC11A1 has pleiotropic effects on macrophage function and remains a strong candidate for infectious disease susceptibility. 5' and/or 3' polymorphisms have been associated with tuberculosis, leprosy, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL...

Mehrotra, Sanjana; Oommen, Joyce; Mishra, Anshuman; Sudharshan, Medhavi; Tiwary, Puja; Jamieson, Sarra E; Fakiola, Michaela; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Rai, Madhukar; Sundar, Shyam; Blackwell, Jenefer M


Proximal visceral endoderm and extraembryonic ectoderm regulate the formation of primordial germ cell precursors

  University of Cambridge - Dspace

Summary: Abstract Background The extraembryonic tissues, visceral endoderm (VE) and extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) are known to be important for the induction of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in mice via activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP...

Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Surani, M Azim


Original article Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: Original article Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal: risk Abstract In the context of global warming and the risk of spreading arthropod-borne diseases, the emergence: Leishmania infantum; Human; Dog; West Africa; Prevalence 1. Introduction The threat of infectious diseases

Choisy, Marc


Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2004;12:31 – 40 Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and pregnancy


Summary: Objective: The aim of the present review was to close the gap in the approach to pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) by providing up-to-date information to obstetricians about physiopathology, epidemiology, vertical transmission, drugs and treatment during pregnancy. Background: Infection with Leishmania chagasi during pregnancy is rare and deserves special attention since little information is available regarding the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis during gestational period and the real possibility of vertical transmission of this disease. Because specific areas in the world are endemic for the disease and considering the continuous growth of the population, cases of pregnant women with visceral leishmaniasis are becoming more frequent. Unfortunately, textbooks on infectious diseases do not include this specific group of patients, and studies in the literature on aspects related to pregnancy and visceral leishmaniasis are scarce. Conclusions: Vertical transmission of leishmaniasis is possible and the institution of treatment is imperative in cases of pregnant women with kala-azar. Amphotericin B is strongly recommended as the first choice drug due to its fewer maternal-fetal adverse effects.

Ernesto Antonio Figueiró-filho; Geraldo Duarte; Patrícia El-beitune; Silvana Maria Quintana; Tamara Lemos Maia


Treatment of Obese Diabetic Mice With a Heme Oxygenase Inducer Reduces Visceral and Subcutaneous

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: Treatment of Obese Diabetic Mice With a Heme Oxygenase Inducer Reduces Visceral and Subcutaneous Adiposity, Increases Adiponectin Levels, and Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance Ming Li,1 in a mouse and a rat model of diabetes, would ameliorate insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes in the ob

Abraham, Nader G.


Role of RVM neurons in capsaicin-evoked visceral nociception and referred hyperalgesia

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: or hindpaw inflammation. Here we have tested the hypothesis that visceral noxious stimulation sensitizes RVM following ICI that lasted for $ 20 min and an enhanced responsiveness to von Frey and heat stimulation. Moreover, ON-like cells acquired a novel response to CRD and responded to heat stimulation in the innocuous

Price, Theodore


Differentiation of extraembryonic endoderm stem cell lines and parietal endoderm into visceral endoderm: the art of XEN cells 

  Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive

Summary: The extraembryonic endoderm of mammals is essential for nutritive support of the foetus and patterning of the early embryo. Visceral and parietal endoderm are major subtypes of this lineage with the former exhibiting ...

Paca, Agnieszka Maria


Temperature-derived potential for the establishment of phlebotomine sandflies and visceral leishmaniasis in


Summary: Abstract. Climate change is expected to manifest in the shift of organisms to regions where they were not present in the past, potentially entailing previously unseen biological risks. However, studies evaluating these future trends are scarce. Here, an important group of vectors (sandflies) and the pathogen transmitted (Leishmania infantum complex) causing the infectious disease visceral leishmaniasis is investigated, focussing on potential establishment in Germany during the 21 st century. As the most important habitat factor, temperature requirements of pathogen and vector were derived from the literature and compared with recent climate records- provided by worldclim- and climate change scenarios. Climate data from the Regional Climate Model REMO were obtained and averaged over the time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. Projected temperature changes (based on the A1B and A2 scenarios) were correlated with the constraints of vector and pathogen. Simulated potentially suitable habitat areas for vector and pathogen were merged to generate a temperature-derived risk map of visceral leishmaniasis. Temperature conditions seem to become suitable for the vector across large swaths of Germany. Nevertheless, temperature constraints for the pathogen may defer the establishment of the parasitic disease, particularly during the first half of the 21 st century. Long-lasting epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis are therefore not expected in Germany during the next few decades, although during extremely warm years an increase in autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis may occur. The southwest (Upper Rhine Valley) and west (Cologne Bight) of Germany are identified as risk areas. The time of potential establishment and corresponding rise in biological risk varies between scenarios, due to differences in the predicted rate of temperature increase.

Dominik Fischer; Stephanie M. Thomas; Carl Beierkuhnlein


A neural correlate of visceral emotional responses: evidence from fMRI of the thoracic spinal cord

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: A neural correlate of visceral emotional responses: evidence from fMRI of the thoracic spinal cord Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of thoracic spinal cord neurons was used to examine the neural; functional MRI; spinal cord; thoracic spinal cord; emotion A core feature of emotional experience

Smith, Stephen D.


Phlebotominae) Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil


Summary: Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L.) longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L.) i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent

Margarete Martins; Santos Afonso; Rosemere Duarte; José Carlos Mir; Lindenbergh Caranha; Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel; Laboratório De Imunoparasitologia; Centro Pesquisas; Gonçalo Moniz; Rua Valdemar Falcão


RESEARCH Impact of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation on Visceral


Summary: We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985–1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous year’s mean Niño-3 index and the temporal trend account for approximately 50 % of the variance in the annual incidence of VL in Bahia. The model shows a robust agreement with the real data, as only the influence of El Niño on the cycle of VL was analyzed. The results suggest that this relationship could be used to predict high-risk years for VL and thus help reduce health impact in susceptible regions in Brazil.

Carlos Roberto Franke; Mario Ziller; Christoph Staubach; Mojib Latif


Genetic and functional evaluation of the role of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in north-east India

  University of Cambridge - Dspace

Summary: associated with susceptibility to cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Here we investigate the role of CXCR1/CXCR2 in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. Methods Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4674259, rs2234671, rs3138060...

Mehrotra, Sanjana; Fakiola, Michaela; Oommen, Joyce; Jamieson, Sarra E; Mishra, Anshuman; Sudarshan, Medhavi; Tiwary, Puja; Rani, Deepa SELVI; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Rai, Madhukar; Sundar, Shyam; Blackwell, Jenefer M


Modelling Within-Host Immune Response to Visceral Helminthiasis and Malaria Co-infection with Prophylaxis

  CERN Preprints

Summary: In this paper, a co-infection of malaria and visceral helminthiasis with immune stimulation and impairment is studied. We have assumed that an individual gets malaria infection during invasion by helminths larvae. In absence of immune response, our results show that the antigens invade the blood system if the rate of red cell rupture per invading merozoite is greater than one. If fewer merozoites are released, the initial state is globally asymptotically stable. If more merozoites are released, there exists malaria-only endemic point. However, both antigens coexist if the mean infection burden is greater than one. In this case, there is a threshold value for drug action below which no recovery of host is expected. In presence of immune response, three equilibrium states exist. The initial invasion state, and secondly, the unstable state when the immune population has been triggered and the antigens have been eliminated. The third state represents the endemic state which is stable if the infection-induced rupt...

Nannyonga, Betty; Luboobi, L S


Neglected Diseases Open access, freely available online Visceral Leishmaniasis: New Health Tools Are Needed


Summary: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), commonly known as kalaazar, from the Hindu vernacular, is a human systemic disease caused by parasitic protozoan species of the genus Leishmania. Transmitted by the bite of the tiny and seemingly innocuous female phlebotomine sandfly (Figure 1), the parasite enters macrophages, where it multiplies and establishes the infection (Figure 2). A multitude of clinical features of the disease ensue gradually, the most important being splenomegaly, recurring and irregular fever, anaemia, pancytopenia, weight loss, and weakness. Unlike malaria, there is no early dramatic fever to announce its arrival; the presentation is insidious, with symptoms appearing over a period of weeks or even months. Affected patients become progressively more anaemic, weak, cachectic, and susceptible to intercurrent infections. The disease is a silent killer, invariably killing almost all untreated patients [1]. VL affects not only the weakest in the community, such as children and those weakened by other diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis, but also healthy adults and economically productive social groups. The disease is a silent killer, invariably killing almost all untreated patients. An estimated 500,000 new cases of VL occur each year, and a tenth of these patients will die [2]. The actual death toll from the disease may be higher than this estimate, considering the existence of unidentified VL foci. Some 90 % of those affected by the disease live in five

Asrat Hailu; Ahmed Mudawi Musa; Catherine Royce; Monique Wasunna


Metagenomic Analysis of Taxa Associated with Lutzomyia longipalpis, Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Using an Unbiased High-Throughput Approach


Summary: Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the most diverse and complex of all vector-borne diseases worldwide. It is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, obligate intramacrophage protists characterised by diversity and complexity. Its most severe form is visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a systemic disease that is fatal if left untreated. In Latin America VL is caused by Leishmania infantum chagasi and transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis. This phlebotomine sandfly is only found in the New World, from Mexico to Argentina. In South America, migration and urbanisation have largely contributed to the increase of VL as a public health problem. Moreover, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases. Methodology/Principal Findings: An inventory of the microbiota associated with insect vectors, especially of wild specimens, would aid in the development of novel strategies for controlling insect vectors. Given the recent VL outbreak in Argentina and the compelling need to develop appropriate control strategies, this study focused on wild male and female Lu. longipalpis from an Argentine endemic (Posadas, Misiones) and a Brazilian non-endemic (Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais) VL location. Previous studies on wild and laboratory reared female Lu. longipalpis have described gut bacteria using standard bacteriological methods. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the insects and submitted to high-throughput pyrosequencing. The analysis revealed the presence of sequences from bacteria, fungi, protist parasites, plants and

Christina B. Mccarthy; Luis A. Diambra; O V. Rivera Pomar


Microglia: a newly discovered role in visceral hypersensitivity? Carl Y. Saab1, Jing Wang2, Chunping Gu2, Kirsten N. Garner2, and Elie D. Al-Chaer2

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: ; neonatal injury; colon; microglia INTRODUCTION Interest in the link between glia and pathological pain has & Brown Medical School, Providence, USA 2Center for Pain Research, Department of Pediatrics, Neurobiology body of evidence for a role of glia in pain modulation, it is plausible that the exaggerated visceral

Hayar, Abdallah


Balancing immunity and pathology in visceral leishmaniasis

  Chemistry Websites

Summary: of parasite persistence with associated immunopathological changes. These include splenomegaly and a breakdown, a fine immunological balance determines responses that effectively promote parasite clearance these responses to offer further means of parasite control in chronically infected VL patients. Immunology

Cai, Long


Emergency endovascular repair of ruptured visceral artery aneurysms

  University of Cambridge - Dspace

Summary: embolisation. Images showed unusual distorted anatomy with a large and small gastroduodenal artery and an inferior pancreatico duode- nal artery running parallel. There was extravasation of contrast from an aneurysm arising from the small duode- nal vessels...

Sadat, Umar; Noor, Nadim; Tang, Tjun Y; Varty, Kevin


ARTICLE NO. 0028 Out of Control: Visceral Influences on Behavior


Summary: Understanding discrepancies between behavior and perceived self-interest has been one of the major, but Avrum Goldstein, in his instant classic Addiction, largely untackled, theoretical challenges confronting

George Loewenstein


Modelling and Simulation of Granuloma Formation in Visceral Leishmaniasis

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: , York, UK Centre for Immunology and Infection, Hull York Medical School and Department of Biology understood. The importance of modelling in immunology is increasing particularly for dynamic processes Immune Systems (AIS) is widening to encompass the area of immunological modelling [1]. Along with [2

Timmis, Jon



  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites


Boyer, Edmond


Original article Canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Senegal

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: is a global concern and not simply a local problem. Indeed, in the context of global warming and the risk´decine, Montpellier, France Received 22 September 2009; accepted 3 September 2010 Abstract In the context of global warming and the risk of spreading arthropod-borne diseases, the emergence and reemergence of leishmaniasis


Adipocytokines attenuate the association between visceral adiposity and diabetes in older adults

  University of California eScholarship Repository

Summary: type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in elderlydiabetes and impaired glucose regulation (either impaired fasting glu- cose or impaired glucose tolerance)diabetes medica- tions. The 519 control subjects had normal glucose tolerance

Kanaya, A M; Harris, T; Goodpaster, B H; Tylavsky, F; Cummings, S R


Hedgehog and Wingless Induce Metameric Pattern in the Drosophila Visceral Mesoderm

  Biotechnology Websites

Summary: and Matthew P. Scott2 Department of Developmental Biology and Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical inherited from blastoderm ancestors are modified by diffusible signals acting on VM-specific enhancers in both organ structure and cellular function. The generation of this diversity has been particularly well

Quake, Stephen R.


combinFormation: Generative Visual Visceral Spatial Hypertext Collections Andruid Kerne

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: the use of images [2, 3]. The situation with the favorites mechanisms of traditional web browsers expressions. The program retrieves images and text from the web, based on this model. This paradigm. Proceedings of COSIGN03 (Computational Semiotics in Games and New Media), in press.. [2] Shipman, F., Hsieh, H

Shipman, Frank


Regionalisation of the mouse visceral endoderm as the blastocyst transforms into the egg cylinder

  University of Cambridge - Dspace

Summary: step, we performed morphological observations to understand how the extra-embryonic region of the egg cylinder forms from the blastocyst. Our analysis suggests a new model for the formation of this region involving cell rearrangements such as folding...

Perea-Gomez, Aitana; Meilhac, Sigolene M; Piotrowska-Nitsche, Karolina; Gray, Dionne; Collignon, Jerome; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena


RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Ancient origin of somatic and visceral neurons

  Physics Websites

Summary: of the nervous system on a large phylogenetic scale is the identification of homologous neuronal types. Here, we to define homologous regions in the nervous system of dis- tant phyla. More recently, homology search has reference [6] for review). This approach provides a novel window on the complex- ity of ancestral nervous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Beta-Cell Function and Visceral Fat in Lactating Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes

  Engineering Websites

Summary: at the first visit: heart rate and blood pressure after sitting quietly for 10 minutes, weight gain to recommendations pertinent to the general population, wherein diet, exercise, and possibly, sulfonylurea medica consent, all women were advised to exercise 3 times a week for 1/2 hour and also to achieve their ideal

Cunningham, Ian


LXR Deficiency Confers Increased Protection against Visceral Leishmania Infection in Mice

  Biotechnology Websites

Summary: Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology and Infectious Diseases, Harbor-University of California Los to wild-type mice. Parasite loads in the livers and spleens of these animals were significantly lower than


Environmental concentration of nonylphenol alters the development of urogenital and visceral organs in avian model.

  Physics Websites

Summary: the normal function of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans (WHO/IPCS, 2002). Among them) 78-85" #12;2 ABSTRACT Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor with harmful effects including of egg through a small needle hole in the shell. We report the effect of NP on chick reproductive system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Cathepsin S Is Activated During Colitis and Causes Visceral Hyperalgesia by a PAR2-Dependent Mechanism in Mice

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: are not defined. We investigated the activation and function of cysteine cathepsins (Cat) in colitis. METHODS activated Cat-B, Cat-L, and Cat-S in colon and spinal cord, and Cat-S was preferentially secreted into the colonic lumen. Intralumi- nal Cat-S amplified visceromotor responses to colorectal distension and induced

Bogyo, Matthew


The Visceral Beauty of Obsession: Ennio Morricone, Dario Argento, and Their Modern Vision of Mystery and Terror

  University of California eScholarship Repository

Summary: covers featured paintings of beautiful women threatened withof the painting in Sam’s apartment. woman in his arms.woman to the camera, the figure hoists a knife almost ceremonially towards the full color original painting.

Bissett, John Sterling


Poste rserv dans le cadre du dispositif de la loi Sauvadet Profil de poste

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: chikungunya, du virus RVF, des leishmanioses et du paludisme), en Europe, en Afrique et en Asie. AFFECTATION conduire à proposer de nouvelles méthodes de lutte contre les maladies (vecteurs de la dengue, du virus


Current Biology 20, 16, August 24, 2010 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.059 Visceral-Locomotory Pistoning

  Engineering Websites

Summary: that changes size and translates between the anterior and posterior of the animal. The proposed two-body system. Socha,2 Wah-Keat Lee,3 and Barry A. Trimmer1 1Department of Biology, Tufts University, 163 Packard Ave, Argonne, IL 60439, USA Summary Animals with an open coelom do not fully constrain internal tissues [1

Socha, Jake


The IL-33/ST2 Axis Is Associated with Human Visceral Leishmaniasis and Suppresses Th1 Responses in the Livers of BALB/c Mice Infected

  Physics Websites

Summary: leishmaniasis is a life-threatening systemic disease due to the Leishmania protozoa L. infantum and L. donovani and is ranked by the World Health Organization as the second most important protozoan parasitic disease after malaria for its grave morbidity, high mortality, and global distribution. Leishmania parasites subvert

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A Software Tool for Volume Registration and Atlas-Based Segmentation of Human Fat-Water MRI Data in Longitudinal A. A. Joshi1

  Engineering Websites

Summary: and visceral adipose tissue depots as well as the degree of fat infiltration in the liver, pancreas, skeletal of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots [5-8]. In this work, we additionally focus on the organs (liver, pancreas

Southern California, University of


PCB uptake and accumulation by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed via a

  Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites

Summary: ., respectively, in the visceral mass, gills+mantle and muscle of oysters fed algal paste containing 1.0 mg PCBs and distribution of PCBs in dierent tissue compartments (visceral mass, gills+mantle, and adductor muscle) and eggs

Hartley, Troy W.


INTRODUCTION One central question in vertebrate development is how

  Biotechnology Websites

Summary: in the nervous system (the central and peripheral nervous system, CNS and PNS), where many hundreds of different pressure and visceral distension from the periphery to the central nervous system. Visceral sensory neurons

Sali, Andrej


RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Analysis of lifestyle and metabolic predictors of

  Physics Websites

Summary: RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Analysis of lifestyle and metabolic predictors of visceral obesity Background: The aim of this study was to provide a framework for the analysis of visceral obesity and its lipids and adipocyte sizes have been considered as potential correlates of visceral obesity in women

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Z .Brain Research 787 1998 269276 Research report

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: and to innocuous and noxious somatic stimuli were assessed when these stimuli were presented separately or together to individual somatic or visceral stimuli, Z .and on their responses during conditioning somatic and visceral of the location of the somatic and visceral receptive fields. The mean population response of the neurons showing

Apkarian, A. Vania


Nom Doctorant Unit BachouR-El Azzi Inserm 991 1

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: processus de minéralisation des cellules pulpaires en modèle tridimensionnel in vitro. Application à l des cellules dendritiques humaines Modulation of regulator of calcineurin 1 by exhaustive physical au cours de la leishmaniose viscérale Etude des mécanismes de cancérisation des cellules hépatiques

Rennes, Université de


JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, Sept. 2009, p. 28182825 Vol. 47, No. 9 0095-1137/09/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/JCM.00645-09

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: Leonidas Deane, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil3 ; Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Nacional de Asuncio´n, Rio de la Plata y Lagerenza, Asuncio´n, Paraguay2 ; Laborato´rio de Pesquisa em Leishmaniose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Av. Brasil 4365-Pav

Steve Kemp


Comparative Microsatellite Typing of New World Leishmania infantum Reveals Low Heterogeneity among

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: Cruz - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3 Laborato´rio de Biologia Molecular de Insetos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4 Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Faculty´ Universita¨tsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2 Laborato´rio de Pesquisa em Leishmaniose, Instituto Oswaldo

Wirth, Thierry


Elec 331 -Respiratory System SRC: AnatomyWarehouse.com

  Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites

Summary: - Respiratory System 4 Mechanics of Breathing Lung Visceral Pleura (attached to lung) Parietal Pleura (attached quiet breathing Assists (expands) during heavy breathing #12;Elec 331 - Respiratory System 5

Pulfrey, David L.


Protective Immunity Against the Protozoan Leishmania chagasi Is Induced by Subclinical Cutaneous Infection with Virulent

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: Protective Immunity Against the Protozoan Leishmania chagasi Is Induced by Subclinical Cutaneous chagasi, the protozoan causing South American visceral leishmaniasis, causes diverse sequelae ranging from

Beverley, Stephen M.



  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: , instinctive reactions, involuntary actions, and visceral functions (cardiac, pulmonary, intestinal, etc, and performing mathematical calculations). It has been called by Paul MacLean "the mother of invention

Amigoni, Francesco


37th Annual Northwestern

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: , manage and treat vascular diseases, including but not limited to aneurysms, peripheral vascular disease the treatment options for visceral and renal artery aneurysmal and occlusive disease CONFERENCE LOCATION

Contractor, Anis



  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: _ Adductor muscle - - - ---- Circulatory system - - -- Nervous system and sense organs - .. - Urinogenital system _ Feeding _ Ciliary currents of the mantle, vis- ceral mass, etc _ Pigmentation of the visceral



  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: . Circulatory system " . Arterial system . Venous system " . Adductor muscles . Retractor muscles of the foot : ' . Visceral mass : . Foot and byssus . Kidney . Digestive tract ". ". " " . Nervous system ". : . " . Sense


Interaction of diet and adipose glucocorticoid action in metabolic syndrome 

  Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive

Summary: Metabolic syndrome, a combination of co-associated features including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, has reached epidemic levels. Recent ...

Man, Tak Yung


Cloud–Based Evaluation Framework for Big Data ?


Summary: . After discussing the challenges of benchmarking on big data, the design of the VISCERAL system is presented, concentrating on the components for coordinating the participants in the benchmark and managing the ground truth creation. The first two benchmarks run on the VISCERAL framework will be on

Allan Hanbury; Henning Müller; Bjoern H. Menze


The definitive version is available at http://www.eg.org/. F. Bello, A. Bulpitt, D. A. Gould, R. Holbrey, C. Hunt, T. How, N. W. John,

  Physics Websites

Summary: , veins), while visceral IR is concerned with organ systems (liver, bile ducts, urinary tract, gut modelling, virtual reality}, Abstract = {We present an integrated system for training visceral needle University, UK 6 Department Computer Science, University of Hull, UK Abstract We present an integrated system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Prostaglandins & other Lipid Mediators 104105 (2013) 4248 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

  Biotechnology Websites

Summary: of chemical- induced diabetes. STZ increased daily water intake and decreased visceral (spleen and pancreas) weight in mice; sEH inhibition in STZ mice decreased water intake, but did not affect visceral weight, hypertension, and stroke [3]. Obesity, which affects one in three Americans, is a serious health problem

Hammock, Bruce D.


Original Research Automatic Intra-Subject Registration-Based

  Engineering Websites

Summary: and linear regression of SAT and VAT volumes, organ volumes, and hepatic and pancreatic fat fractions (HFF, visceral, and organ (hepatic, pancreatic) fat has adverse effects on health and increases the risks of heart disease, diabetes, metabolic disorders, and cer- tain cancers (1,2). Subcutaneous and visceral

Southern California, University of


Abdominal fat segmentation using graph cut methods

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume from 3D DIXON MRI. The test data used was acquired;List of Abbreviations and Symbols List of Abbreviations and Acronyms SAT Subcutaneous adipose tissue VAT Visceral adipose tissue MR Magnetic resonance 2PD 2-point DIXON reconstruction E2PD Extended 2


ZOO 3713 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY Fall 2013 Syllabus Instructor : Mr. Frank T. Logiudice

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: 20 Endocrine System 18 Oct 27 Digestive System 12 Nov 3 Respiratory System 13 Nov 10 Circulatory System 14 Nov 17 Circulatory System (cont.) 14 Nov 24 Urogenital System 15 Dec 1 Urogenital System (cont Unit 3: Circulatory System and Visceral Organ Systems Topic -The circulatory system and visceral organ


ZOO 3713 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY Fall 2014 Syllabus Instructor : Mr. Frank T. Logiudice

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: Circulatory System 14 Nov 16 Circulatory System (cont.) 14 Nov 23 Urogenital System 15 Nov 31 Urogenital.) Lab Practical 2 is on 23 October Unit 3: Circulatory System and Visceral Organ Systems Topic -The circulatory system and visceral organ systems of the shark. mudpuppy and cat - Ch 3 Study Dates ­28 October


RESEARCH Open Access Mutation spectrum of MLL2 in a cohort of kabuki syndrome patients


Summary: Background: Kabuki syndrome (Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare, multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome characterized by a peculiar face, short stature, skeletal, visceral and dermatoglyphic abnormalities, cardiac anomalies, and immunological defects. Recently mutations in the

Lucia Micale; Bartolomeo Augello; Carmela Fusco; Angelo Selicorni; Maria N Loviglio; Margherita Cirillo Silengo; Re Reymond; Barbara Gumiero; Federica Zucchetti; Ester V D’addetta; Elga Belligni; Alessia Calcagnì; Maria C Digilio; Bruno Dallapiccola; Francesca Faravelli; Francesca Forzano; Maria Accadia; Aldo Bonfante; Maurizio Clementi; Cecilia Daolio; Sofia Douzgou; Paola Ferrari; Orazio Gabrielli; Leopoldo Zelante


Centronuclear myopathy in mice lacking a novel muscle-specific protein kinase

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: regulated by MEF2 Osamu Nakagawa,1,8 Michael Arnold,1 Masayo Nakagawa,1 Hideaki Hamada,1 John M. Shelton,2 to differentiation of all muscle lineages: somatic, cardiac, and visceral (Bour et al. 1995; Lilly et al. 1995

Campbell, Kevin P.


INTRODUCTION In Drosophila, the mesoderm gives rise to several tissues and

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: to the visceral mesoderm and heart- muscle primordium (Bodmer et al., 1990). bagpipe (bap), in contrast further traced the fat-cell lineage to nine bilateral clusters of cells within the mesoderm at germ-band

Hoshizaki, Deborah K.


Update on adipocyte hormones - Regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism

  University of California eScholarship Repository

Summary: weight loss without decreasing food intake in mice consuming a high-fatweight loss is that adi- ponectin may be primarily produced by visceral fat,fat distribution (124). Circulating adiponectin levels in- crease after weight loss

Havel, Peter J. D.V.M., Ph.D.


December 11, 2009 Dear Honors College students, faculty, and alumni

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: and academic presentations. (I can still recall the visceral shock as I walked around the humid campus in my Allen Mandelbaum and the late Elizabeth Sewell and Allan Bloom. I look forward to checking back with you

Azevedo, Ricardo


The Role of Preadipocyte 11? Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 in Regional Fat Distribution 

  Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive

Summary: Glucocorticoid excess promotes visceral obesity, which is closely associated with morbidity and cardiometabolic disease. Similar features are found in the Metabolic Syndrome in the absence of elevated plasma cortisol. Whilst ...

De Sousa Peixoto, Ricardo


On the Banks of the Karakoro

  University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks

Summary: On the Banks of the Karakoro offers readers intimate details of life in Mauritania, a little-known West African country saddled by the Sahara and underdevelopment. Heartbreaking, visceral, honest, and hopeful, the account of my experience...

Miller, Jeremiah


R E P O R T SThe National High Magnetic Field Laboratory FLOR IDA STATE UNIVER

  Chemistry Websites

Summary: brain sensitive to vestibular and visceral stimulation, as indicated by increased numbers of c of static magnetic fields of high strength on mammals and humans. We have recently discovered that 30 min

Weston, Ken


/typeset2:/sco4/jobs2/ELSEVIER/atr/week.15/Patr1132.001 Thu May 3 14:09:31 2001 Page Thu Acta Tropica 000 (2001) 000000

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: including humans, in whom they are the aetiologic agent of visceral and ocular Lar6a migrans. The labile adhesion and cell trafficking. Most secreted mucins also contain flanking cysteine-rich do- mains, N- and

Maizels, Rick


May 26, 2007; Jun 10, 2007; Augustt 7, 2008. History of Science and the Material Theory of Induction

  Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites

Summary: accounts of inductive inference to the example, I can get one or other account to fit well enough, eventually. Often the fit is Procrustean, succeeding largely because of the original visceral instinct


Purinergic receptors as future targets for treatment of

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: - drome (IBS)-like visceral hyperalgesia, using acetic acid (AA) infusion into the colon. The authors have, although some of the interacting pathways are not yet known. Extrinsic vagal and sacral parasympathetic

Burnstock, Geoffrey




Summary: First-line drug treatment was recorded in 573 immunocompetent patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Italy. In the past 12 years, the proportion of antimonial treatments decreased from 100 % to 2.8%, while the proportion of amphotericin B treatments increased from 0 % to 97.2%. The countrywide change in therapy is a response to both disease reemergence and increasing antimonial failure. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease caused by the multiplication of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum in the phagocytes of the reticuloendothelial system. Infections are widespread in the Mediterranean subregion, where the parasite is transmitted in summer by the bites of phlebotomine sand flies, and canids serve as reservoir hosts (1). In the first half of the 20th century, visceral leishmaniasis

Luigi Gradoni; Marina Gramiccia


Comparison of the efficacy and pharmacology of formulations of amphotericin B used in treatment of leishmaniasis

  Physics Websites

Summary: Comparison of the efficacy and pharmacology of formulations of amphotericin B used in treatment to pentavalent antimony compounds has shifted the emphasis to amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Lipid formulations show good efficacy but are expensive. However, the treatment period

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg., 81(6), 2009, pp. 10041006 doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0285

  Physics Websites

Summary: -Time Polymerase Chain Reaction to Follow-Up of Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients Treated with Meglumine Antimoniate improvement and blood parasite load determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed and used successfully for the diagnosis of VL.4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2009, pp. 000000 doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0285

  Physics Websites

Summary: improvement and blood parasite load determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed and used successfully for the diagnosis of VL.4-Time Polymerae Chain Reaction to Follow-Up of Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients Treated with Meglumine Antimoniate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


56 Dartmouth Medicine | dartmed.dartmouth.edu Spring 2012 ART OF MEDICINE

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: the hues beyond what the viewer would expect." Blais's drawing "depicts an aortic valve replacement [in replaced with a bovine tissue valve." The bright colors make the work "more visceral and real be fixed or replaced. . . . I like to wonder, if even one of the most crucial organs in our body can

Myers, Lawrence C.


INTRODUCTION In Drosophila, the mesoderm is specified by genes that allot

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: on the development of somatic muscles. Baylies and Bate (1996) also showed that Twi behaved like a `myogenic switch'. twi mis-expression in the ectoderm caused these cells to express muscle marker genes and, in the mesoderm, Twi levels help determine cell-fate choices between somatic and visceral mesoderm. Vertebrate twi


INTRODUCTION During the course of embryogenesis the potential of cells

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: , visceral and somatic muscle, heart (dorsal) muscle, hemocytes, gonad-sheath cells (gonadal mesoderm fat-cell differentiation in Drosophila (Sam, S., Leise, W. and Hoshizaki, D. K. (1996) Mech. Dev. 60, 197-205) and has been proposed to function in a cell-fate choice between fat cell and somatic gonadal

Hoshizaki, Deborah K.


Current Molecular Medicine 2004, 4, 611-621 611 1566-5240/04 $45.00+.00 2004 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: : Microarray, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, stage-specific, fluorescent hybridization, gene discovery, Northern blot million people worldwide, with 600,000 new clinical cases reported annually and many more unreported [1. infantum, and L. chagasi. More than 90% of the visceral cases in the world are reported from Bangladesh

Beverley, Stephen M.


obesity | VOLUME 18 NUMBER 3 | MaRch 2010 489 nature publishing group articles

  Biotechnology Websites

Summary: obesity | VOLUME 18 NUMBER 3 | MaRch 2010 489 nature publishing group articles integrative Physiology IntroductIon Obesity, a chronic inflammatory condition, is an increasingly important public health issue reaching epidemic proportions (1). Visceral obesity has been defined as an important ele- ment

Hammock, Bruce D.


Ectopic Fat Deposition in Prediabetic Overweight and Obese Minority Adolescents

  Engineering Websites

Summary: by higher incidence and prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in African American and Latino, insulin sensitivity; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; VAT, visceral adipose tissue. O R I G I N A L A R T I California, Los Angeles, California 90089 Context: Optimizing effective prevention and treatment of type 2

Southern California, University of


Corresponding author: Philippe Lefebvre, Facult de Mdecine de Lille-Ple Recherche; INSERM U545-Btiment J&K; Boulevard du Professeur Leclerc ;

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: predisposes to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated cardiovascular to type 2 diabetes, results in part from dysregulated visceral white adipose tissue functions. Here we REPROGRAMS PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR- ACTIVATED RECEPTOR g TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY IN OBESITY Bruno Lefebvre1,2

Boyer, Edmond


postpartum fat in women with gdm CANADIAN JOURNAL OF DIABETES. 2003;27(1):29-32.

  Engineering Websites

Summary: , as well as type 2 diabetes (1-4). In other populations, visceral fat mass has been shown to be a marker gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), compared to matched controls. Twenty-five women (14 GDM, 11 controls) who M Ã? T H O D E S R Ã? S U LTAT S #12;30 INTRODUCTION Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common

Cunningham, Ian


Higher Acute Insulin Response to Glucose May Determine Greater Free Fatty Acid Clearance in

  Mathematics Websites

Summary: sensitivity index; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; TG, triglyc- eride; VAT, visceral adipose tissue; WC, waist;African-American women have a higher prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than white Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland


Short Terms: ECNS: embryonic central nervous system; VNC: ventral nerve cord; EH: embryonic hindgut; EM: embryonic midgut; EDE: embryonic dorsal epidermis; EF: embryonic foregut; EVE: embryonic ventral epidermis; ELMS: embryonic/larval muscle system; EP:

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: /larval visceral muscle; VM: ventral midline; EMT: embryonic Malpighian tubule; LC: lateral cord; ELSM: embryonic EM EDE EF EVE ELMS EP ELVM VM EMT LC ELSM ECBN ELPS LCN SNSP 1 CG5545 0.98 1 0.98 1 - - - - 0.97 - - - 1 - - EH EDE EF EVE EMT ELPS EH EDE EF EVE EMT ELPS 4 CG5277 0.97 - - - 0

Peng, Hanchuan


Twelfth Night Zoe Golub-Sass '16

  Chemistry Websites

Summary: provoking and visceral. It is, in essence, a celebration of the arts--music, poetry Festival and in leading roles in both Bat Boy the Musical and Seussical the Musical with the UTC. She's volunteered with Shakespeare Santa Cruz for numerous

Snider, Barry B.


Acknowledgment I would like to thank my two advisors, Gene Gindi and George Zubal, for their

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: Department of Energy grant DE FG0288ER60724. ``My insignia is a guy surfing on an enormous wave of lava tattooed on the organ itself. It's illegal in the States--I had to go to Mexico. It's called visceral

Duncan, James S.


RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Modelling Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) infection

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: and act as a reservoir for chicken infection. Clinical signs are varied and result in significant]. Symptoms include polyneuritis (an enlargement of multiple peripheral nerves), visceral lymphoma (tumours, brain oedema and acute rash. There has been a change in the types of clinical signs since the disease

Read, Andrew


Muscle type-specific expression of Zasp52 isoforms in Drosophila Anja Katzemich, Jenny Yanyan Long, Klodiana Jani, Byeo Ri Lee, Frieder Schck

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: Muscle type-specific expression of Zasp52 isoforms in Drosophila Anja Katzemich, Jenny Yanyan Long: Zasp Drosophila PDZ-LIM domain protein Alp/Enigma family Alternative splicing Muscle attachment Z disk assembly Myofibril assembly Heart muscle Visceral muscle Somatic muscle a b s t r a c t Zasp52 is a member

Schoeck, Frieder


REVIEW Role of cytoskeletal abnormalities in the neuropathology and pathophysiology of type I lissencephaly


Summary: Abstract Type I lissencephaly or agyria-pachygyria is a rare developmental disorder which results from a defect of neuronal migration. It is characterized by the absence of gyri and a thickening of the cerebral cortex and can be associated with other brain and visceral anomalies. Since the

Gaëlle Friocourt; Pascale Marcorelles; Pascale Saugier-veber; Marie-lise Quille; Stephane Marret; Annie Laquerrière


CLINICAL AND VACCINE IMMUNOLOGY, June 2009, p. 956958 Vol. 16, No. 6 1556-6811/09/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/CVI.00023-09

  Physics Websites

Summary: and Humoral Responses to Leishmania major Virulence Factors in Healed Cutaneous Leishmaniasis January 2009/Returned for modification 17 February 2009/Accepted 23 March 2009 Cellular and humoral immune and humoral immune responses of healed CL (hCL) and Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis (MVL) patients were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


WellcomeHistoryISSUE 43 SPRING 2010 Feature articles 2

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: . achiNtya Kumar Dutta Kala-azar or black fever (visceral leishmaniasis) frequently figures in the news and caused the deaths of almost five thousand. Kala- azar transmission continued thereafter, resulting in more than 250 000 cases and numerous deaths. However, it is believed that the actual impact

Rambaut, Andrew


Towards a Transmedia Search Engine: A User Study on Perceiving Analogies in Multimedia Data

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: how people perceive similarity between and within media forms. We describe the development and results people's visceral reactions on how two media samples relate, while the second delves deeper into why two, we are studying how people perceive analogies between and within media forms (audio samples, images

Dinh, H. Quynh


New CT imaging method for adipose tissue analysis in mouse model of obesity SYLVAIN ORDUREAU

  Physics Websites

Summary: New CT imaging method for adipose tissue analysis in mouse model of obesity SYLVAIN ORDUREAU 3 and for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat. Equivalent methods adapted to murine models of obesity are still to obese mice [-206;-32]. The resulting computed volumes of fat tissue were respectively 4756 and 5978 mm3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Eur. J. Biochem. 218, 29-37 (1993) Phenotype of recombinant Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: . Trypanosomatidsare flagellated parasitic protozoa which include the causative agents of Chagas' disease (Trypano- soma cruzi) and visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leish- mania spp.). Chagas' disease affects up, particularly with Chagas' disease, treatment with drugs currently available is unsatisfactory due to toxi- city

Schnaufer, Achim


Steroids 74 (2009) 956962 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: ) and participate in peripheral pain. However, the mechanisms underlying P2X receptor-mediated nociception at differ. Introduction About 4,000,000 people in the world suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [1]. IBD similar signs and symptoms (abdom- inal pain, alterations in form, and frequency of stool) [2], visceral

Burnstock, Geoffrey


Sensate abstraction: hybrid strategies for multi-dimensional data in expressive virtual reality contexts

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: ) - a groundbreaking snapshot of microbial biodiversity in the world's oceans [1]. As an indication of the massive the Global Ocean Survey (GOS). The installation creates a visceral experience of the abstraction of nature an aesthetically-impelled public-facing encounter with metagenomics data from the Global Ocean Survey (GOS

Schulze, Jürgen P.


Purinergic signalling: therapeutic potential* GEOFFREY BURNSTOCK

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: .--Thrombosis.--Visceral pain.-- Cancer.--Osteoporosis.--Peripheral vascular disease.--Cystic fibrosis.--Parkinson's disease as the therapeutic potential of purinergic agonists or antagonists for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia.--Trombosis.--Dolor vis- ceral.--Cáncer.--Osteoporosis.--Enfermedad periférica vascular.--Fibrosis císti- ca

Burnstock, Geoffrey


Interactive Art using Ubisense Motion Tracking Technology

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: art installation." #12;"The installation will be visceral: connecting body, technology and sound. Our connection Max link · Data extraction · Filtering · Event handlers · Data unpacking · Sound processing Tags decisions Implementation Final product Outline #12;Key decisions Motion tracking Ubisense Sound processing

van Bakel, Steffen


LGBT Rights Law: A Career Guide

  Engineering Websites

Summary: ; Robert Bank, Gay Men's Health Crisis; Kara Suffredini, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force; Janson Wu gained a new determination for greater equality. As disease exposed the inequalities of the systems this period, including Gay Men's Health Crisis, formed in 1981 as a community's visceral response

Wolfe, Patrick J.


Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization, and Imaging (2011) D. Cunningham and T. Isenberg (Editors)

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: Dance Analysis K. Carlson, T. Schiphorst and C. Shaw The School of Interactive Arts and Technology 250Plot. Contemporary dance is an experiential and time based art form with few available analysis techniques. Our and Presentation]: Miscellaneous 1. Introduction Contemporary dance is a visceral art form that that is often

Shaw, Chris


Columbia University Program in Physical Therapy Alumni News

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: to work with the performing arts community and apply her visceral and kinesthetic understanding of danceColumbia University Program in Physical Therapy Alumni News SHANNON NARASIMHAN, DPT Shannon Narasimhan, CUDPT 2012 Katy Perry: The Prismatic World Tour Shannon is currently a Neuro Tour Physical

Grishok, Alla


The lower urinary tract, including the bladder and striated urethral sphincter muscle, has two basic states

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: The lower urinary tract, including the bladder and striated urethral sphincter muscle, has two and micturition, the central nervous system maintains a reciprocity between the activity in sacral bladder understanding of the neural control of lower urinary tract function has been built. The pelvic visceral

Manitoba, University of


Adenosine triphosphate as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator Geoffrey Burnstock

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: -resistant excitation of the urinary bladder and as a cotransmitter in sympathetic nerves supplying visceral organs and central nervous systems (see Burnstock 1976, 1999a, and Figure 1). Implicit in the purinergic nerve and theophylline, and occupation activates or inhibits an adenylate cyclase system. P2-purinoceptors are more

Burnstock, Geoffrey


Is Visfatin an Adipokine or Myokine? Evidence for Greater Visfatin Expression in Skeletal Muscle than

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: than Visceral Fat in Chickens Susan M. Krzysik-Walker, Olga M. Oco´n-Grove, Sreenivasa R. Maddineni as plasma visfatin levels in chickens that are selected for rapid growth and are naturally hyperglycemic relative to mammals. By RT-PCR, we detected visfatin cDNA in multiple tissues in the chicken. The deduced

Ramachandran, Ramesh


Vet. Res. 38 (2007) 419433 419 c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2007

  Physics Websites

Summary: % of the chickens inoculated with rRB-1B*UL13 virus developed tumors in visceral organs, none of the contact birds did. MDV antigens were clearly expressed in the feather tips of rRB-1B infected chickens, suggesting. Marek's disease virus / UL13 / pathogenesis / horizontal spread / chicken * Corresponding author

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Use of Radiotracer Techniques to Study Subcellular Distribution of Metals and Radionuclides in Bivalves from the Noumea Lagoon, New Caledonia

  Physics Websites

Summary: individuals of each species were collected and dissected. The gills and visceral mass were separated, pooled resulting from the nickel mining industry and related activities constitutes a long lasting threat of inducing deleterious effects (reaction with cellular components) (Viarengo 1985) as well as to being

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Acta Tropica 97 (2006) 364369 Refinement of techniques for the propagation of Leishmania

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: in hamsters Susan Wyllie, Alan H. Fairlamb Division of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology development against visceral leishmaniasis. Here we report refinements to the hamster model of infection in hamster urine as early as 6 weeks post-inoculation. With modification, this assay could be an important

Schnaufer, Achim


Intermuscular tendons are essential for the development of vertebrate stomach

  Physics Websites

Summary: coordination of the enteric nervous system and the visceral smooth muscle cells (SMC), and defective The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a remarkably complex, three-dimensional, specialized system derived from a simple layer), endoderm (which forms the epithelial lining), and ectoderm (which includes the enteric nervous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Vaginal hyperalgesia in a rat model of endometriosis Karen J. Berkley*, Angie Cason, Heather Jacobs,

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: sham) was induced by autotransplantation of small pieces of uterus (or fat) on mesenteric cascade rights reserved. Keywords: Uterus; Referred pain; Fertility; Pelvic organ; Visceral pain Endometriosis the uterus, usually in the abdominal/pelvic cavity. Its main symptoms include reduced fertility, severe dysme

Berkley, Karen J.


Pennington Biomedical Research Center T35 Mentors for Summer 2012

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: of nontraditional CHD risk factors such as C-reactive protein, heart rate variability, and visceral fat. Deep Dixit. McIlHenny Endowed Chair in Health Wisdom, PBRC Professor, Preventive Medicine Laboratory Exercise Testing Core Recruiting Core, PBRC Dr. Church's studies address issues related to exercise and health


Patterns of Gene Expression During Drosophila Mesoderm

  Biotechnology Websites

Summary: Drosophila mesoderm development, resulting in the formation of heart, somatic muscle, and other cell types, visceral, and heart muscle are all derived from mesoderm progenitor cells. The Dro- sophila twist gene (1 for the bal- ancer chromosome with two copies of GFP. Homozygous twist mutant embryos were sepa- rated from

Quake, Stephen R.


Renaissance Man College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University http://asnews.syr.edu/newsevents_2014/releases/gary_radke_legacy.html[6/19/2014 2:52:52 PM

  Biotechnology Websites

Summary: explaining why engagement is key to turning admitted students into enrolled students and some colleagues one day, when his friend began to look famished. "Gary never missed lunch," says his hands dirty. Literally. "I tell my students that learning should be visceral," says Radke

Raina, Ramesh


From: Knapp, C. (1996). Drinking: A Love Story, Dial Press, New York. I Drank. I drank Fum Blanc at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, and I drank double shots of Johnnie Walker Black on the rocks at

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, and I drank double shots of Johnnie Walker Black on the rocks at a dingy Chinese happened? I have the CV of a model citizen or a gifted child, not a common drunk. Hometown: Cambridge than merely physical; It's psychic and visceral and multilayered. There's a dark fear to the feeling

Squire, Larry R.


Symposium Clinical Research Priority Program Non-resectable liver tumors

  Chemistry Websites

Summary: 1st Symposium ­ Clinical Research Priority Program Non-resectable liver tumors ­ from palliation Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery LAB D 34 Phone 044 255 20 71 Venue UniversityHospital Zürich Research Priority Program) on liver tumors. Treatment of complex liver diseases is only possible

Zürich, Universität


Sexual size dimorphism in spiders: patterns and processes

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: - soma is the spider's abdomen containing most of the visceral organs, the gonads, and the silk glands the abdomen are pumped into the anterior regions of the body to expand the new and still soft cuticle (Foelix) and are therefore very useful and easy to measure for estimating a spider's size. On the other hand, the abdomen

Foellmer, Matthias


Marek's Disease Marek's Disease is a viral tumor-causing disease of chickens. Marek's is distributed worldwide and is

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: loss · Blindness · Death Visceral Form: Tumors on internal organs including heart, ovary, liverMarek's Disease Marek's Disease is a viral tumor-causing disease of chickens. Marek. They appear to return to normal, but frequently die from internal tumors a short time later. For more fact

New Hampshire, University of


(IFG) and anterior insula (AI), which sustain momentary feed-back-guided control when tasks are performed that are novel,

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: (IFG) and anterior insula (AI), which sustain momentary feed- back-guided control when tasks and visceral centers of the nervous system such as the hypothalamus (Carmichael & Price 1995), the AI may). The IFG/AI areas that are active when people experience subjec- tive effort are also implicated


Received: 5 March 2010, Revised: 30 March 2010, Accepted: 31 March 2010, Published online in Wiley Online Library: 30 July 2010 Quantification of human body fat tissue

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation

Neumann, Heiko


Received: 5 March 2010, Revised: 30 March 2010, Accepted: 31 March 2010, Published online in Wiley InterScience: 2010 Quantification of human body fat tissue

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation

Neumann, Heiko


BioRhythm: a Biologically-inspired Audio-Visual Installation

  Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites

Summary: spectra of pulse waves. Keywords bio-feedback, bio-sensing, sonification, spatial audio, spa- tialization scientific evidence of the relationship between har- monic peaks of blood volume change signals and visceral for the flow of qi (pronounced "chi"), the Chinese term for psychophysical energy. Finally, animal and clinical

California at Santa Barbara, University of


CLINICAL STUDY The impact of the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen

  Mathematics Websites

Summary: and adipose tissues in 20­29-year-old Danish men: Odense Androgen Study Torben Leo Nielsen1 , Claus Hagen1 and lower trunk muscle (musclethigh and musclelower trunk), subcutaneous adipose tissues (SATthigh and SATlower trunk), and deep adipose tissues (i.m. and visceral) were measured in 393 men by magnetic


2014NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. nature immunology aDVaNCE ONLINE PUBLICaTION

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: found. In both mice and humans, visceral adipose tissue shows consider- able enrichment for iNKT cells; in this tissue, they represent 15­20% of total T cells15,16. Adipose tissue harbors a distinct collection an important role in the homeostasis of the adipose tissue in the lean state17. Treg cells with restricted TCR

von Andrian, Ulrich H.


The Annals of Applied Statistics 2013, Vol. 7, No. 2, 669690

  Engineering Websites

Summary: of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology, NIA. The CIDR Visceral Adiposity Study includes a genome-wide association study funded as part of the Division of Aging Biology and the Division of Geriatrics and Clinical our method with a large genome-wide association study and es- timate the "heritability" of body mass

Gordon, Geoffrey J.


Finger creases lend a hand in Kabuki syndrome Caroline Michota*

  Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites

Summary: syndrome associating malformations with intellectual deficiency and numerous visceral, orthopedic, endocrinological, immune and autoimmune complications. The early establishment of a diagnostic of KS leads complications of auto-immune diseases or obesity. However, the diagnosis of KS remains difficult because based

Boyer, Edmond


Running Head: Sexual dimorphism in body fat regulation Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to:


Summary: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the principal site for lipid accumulation. Males and females maintain distinctive WAT distribution patterns. Specifically, males tend to accumulate relatively more visceral fat whereas females accumulate relatively more subcutaneous fat. The phenomenon of maintaining typical sex-specific fat distributions suggests sex-specific mechanisms that regulate energy balance and adiposity. We used two distinct approaches to reduce fat mass, caloric restriction (CR) and surgical fat removal (termed lipectomy), and assessed parameters involved in the regulation of energy balance. We found that male and female mice responded differentially to caloric restriction (CR)- and to lipectomy-induced fat loss. Females decreased energy expenditure during CR or after lipectomy. In contrast, males responded by eating more food during food return following CR or after lipectomy. Female CR mice conserved subcutaneous fat whereas CR males lost adiposity equally in the subcutaneous and visceral depots. In addition, female mice had a reduced capability to restore visceral fat following fat loss. Following CR, plasma leptin levels decreased in male but not female mice. The failure to increase food intake after returning to ad libitum intake in females could be due to the relatively stable levels of leptin. In summary, we have found sexual dimorphisms in the response to fat loss that point to important underlying differences in the strategies by which male and female mice regulate body weight. Key words: food intake; energy expenditure; leptin; subcutaneous fat; visceral fat 2 Page 3 of 46

Haifei Shi; April D. Strader; Stephen C. Woods; Y J. Seeley; Y J. Seeley, Ph.D.; E. Galbraith Road


Modlin RL, Melancon-Kaplan J, Young SM, Pir-mez C, Kino H, Convit J, Rea TH, Bloom BR

  Physics Websites

Summary: -407 Shimizu Y, Newman W, Tanaka Y, Shaw S (1992) Lymphocyte interactions with endo- thelial cells. lmmunot Cancer Re-N Hogg (Imperial Cancer Re- search Fund, London WC2A 3PX, UK) The dynamic interaction between formation in experimental visceral leish- maniasis. Differential T cell and lymphokine roles in initial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


38th Annual Northwestern

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: detect, diagnose, manage and treat vascular diseases, including but not limited to aneurysms, peripheral the limitations of eVAr · Demonstrate the treatment options for visceral and renal artery aneurysmal and occlusive about the latest developments in treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm disease · evaluate new

Chisholm, Rex L.


Protostomia: Lophotrochozoa: Mollusca Protostomia: Lophotrochozoa: Mollusca

  Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites

Summary: carbonate shells ­ lost or reduced in some · Heart and open circulatory system #12;Mollusca Protostomia · Calcium carbonate shells ­ lost or reduced in some · Heart and open circulatory system ­ hemocoel #12 or reduced in some · Heart and open circulatory system ­ hemocoel · 3 main body parts: foot, visceral mass


Dterminisme neuro humoral de l'adaptation de l'intestin rsiduel aprs entrectomie

  Physics Websites

Summary: , stimulation and neuromediator action or humoral effects due to endocrine and G.I. hormones. This survey does factors and the role of the nervous system in the adaptation processes. Evidence for blood-borne factors system is established. Visceral sensitivity conveyed to the central nervous system through the vagal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1662 , 915-922 first published online 18 November 20092772010Proc. R. Soc. B

  Biology and Medicine Websites

Summary: skull modifications. All modifications are of `soft morphology' (covered external nares and choanae. Aspects of its skull and visceral mor- phology are described and considered in terms of the possible life typhlonectid that has a highly modified skull and choanae covered by the oral mucosa, but has large, open

Wake, Marvalee H.


A novel cadherin cell adhesion molecule: its expression pattern associated with implantation and organogenesis of mouse embryos


Summary: Abstract. The Ca2+-dependent cell adhesion molecules, termed cadherins, were previously divided into two subclasses, E- and N-types, with different adhesive specificity. In this study, we identified a novel class of cadherin, termed P-cadherin, using a visceral endoderm cell line PSA5-E. This cadherin was a l18,000-D glycoprotein and distinct from E- and N-cadherins in immunological specificity and molecular mass. In accord with these findings, cells with P-cadherin did not cross-adhere with cells with E-cadherin. P-Cadherin first appeared in developing mouse embryos in the extraembryonic ectoderm and the visceral endoderm at the egg cylinder stage and later was expressed in various tissues. The placenta and the uterine decidua most abundantly expressed

Akinao Nose; Masatoshi Takeichi


ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Portal Theory Supported by Venous Drainage–Selective Fat Transplantation


Summary: OBJECTIVE—The “portal hypothesis ” proposes that the liver is directly exposed to free fatty acids and cytokines increasingly released from visceral fat tissue into the portal vein of obese subjects, thus rendering visceral fat accumulation particularly hazardous for the development of hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we used a fat transplantation paradigm to (artificially) increase intra-abdominal fat mass to test the hypothesis that venous drainage of fat tissue determines its impact on glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Epididymal fat pads of C57Bl6/J donor mice were transplanted into littermates, either to the parietal peritoneum (caval/systemic venous drainage) or, by using a novel approach, to the mesenterium, which confers portal venous drainage. RESULTS—Only mice receiving the portal drained fat transplant

Julia M. Rytka; Stephan Wueest; Eugen J. Schoenle; Daniel Konrad


Rac1-Dependent Collective Cell Migration Is Required for Specification of the Anterior-Posterior Body Axis of the Mouse


Summary: Cell migration and cell rearrangements are critical for establishment of the body plan of vertebrate embryos. The first step in organization of the body plan of the mouse embryo, specification of the anterior-posterior body axis, depends on migration of the anterior visceral endoderm from the distal tip of the embryo to a more proximal region overlying the future head. The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) is a cluster of extra-embryonic cells that secretes inhibitors of the Wnt and Nodal pathways to inhibit posterior development. Because Rac proteins are crucial regulators of cell migration and mouse Rac1 mutants die early in development, we tested whether Rac1 plays a role in AVE migration. Here we show that Rac1 mutant embryos fail to specify an anterior-posterior axis and, instead, express posterior markers in a ring around the embryonic circumference. Cells that express the molecular markers of the AVE are properly specified in Rac1 mutants but remain at the distal tip of the embryo at the time when migration should take place. Using tissue specific deletions, we show that Rac1 acts autonomously within the visceral endoderm to promote cell migration. High-resolution imaging shows that the leading wild-type AVE cells extend long lamellar protrusions that span several cell diameters and are polarized in the direction of cell movement. These projections are tipped by filopodia-like structures that appear to sample the environment. Wild-type AVE cells display hallmarks of collective cell migration: they retain tight and adherens junctions as they migrate and exchange neighbors within the plane of the visceral endoderm epithelium. Analysis of mutant embryos shows that Rac1 is not

Isabelle Migeotte; Tatiana Omelchenko; Alan Hall; Kathryn V. Anderson


Cell, Vol. 108, 3143, January 11, 2002, Copyright 2002 by Cell Press DREAM Is a Critical Transcriptional Repressor

  Biotechnology Websites

Summary: responses in models of acute ther- mal, mechanical, and visceral pain. dream / mice also Hai-Ying M. Cheng,1,2,3,4,12 Graham M. Pitcher,6,7,12 Steven R. Laviolette,8 Ian Q. Whishaw,9 Kit I. Tong,3,4 Lisa K. Kockeritz,3,4 Teiji Wada,1,2 Nicholas A. Joza,1,2,5 Michael Crackower,1,2,3 exhibited reduced pain behaviors in models

Ikura, Mitsuhiko


The officer fetish

  Texas A&M University - TxSpace

Summary: of Chapter II is devoted to laying a foundation of Marxist and Freudian definitions of fetish and fetishism. Both programs of Marx and Freud work well with military fictions because, I believe, those fictions operate within a narrative economy where... associated with war narrative: we may call ourselves anti-war, but we are often turned on by the visceral thrills associated with war stories. Freud would call this a classic case of disavowal. Most war narratives, I argue, seem to crumble beneath...

Van Meter, Larry Allan


CASE REPORT Diagnosis and Management of Blunt Pancreatic Trauma: A Case Report with Review of the Literature


Summary: Pancreatic injury continues to be a major source of morbidity and mortality in blunt abdominal trauma. Major ductal injuries result in a mortality of13 % to 31 %, which increases with the number of associated visceral and vascular injuries1.2. Exploratory laparotomy is undertaken either because of peritonitis or haemoperitoneum and not because of the isolated pancreatic injury, which is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively3. CT scanning

T. F. T. Khan Frcsed; A. Zahari Md


Cerebral Activation during Anal and Rectal Stimulation


Summary: While the rectum is innervated by visceral afferents, the anal canal is innervated by the somatosensory pudendal nerve. The representation of these two central domains of intestinal sensations in the human brain is largely unknown. Nonpainful pneumatic stimulation of the anal canal and the distal rectum using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in eight healthy subjects. Subjective scaling of sensations revealed no differences in unpleasantness and pain during both stimuli. Both types of stimuli revealed fMRI activation in secondary somatosensory, insula, cingular gyrus, left inferior parietal, and right orbitofrontal cortex. Anal stimulation resulted in additional activation of primary sensory and motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and left cerebellum. We concluded that viscerorectal and somatosensory anal stimulation predominantly differ in their primary sensory activation and additional activation in motor areas. This motor response following aversive somatosensory stimuli may be caused by a reflexive avoidance reaction which is not observed after the more diffuse experienced visceral stimulation. © 2001 Academic Press Key Words: visceral; rectal; anal; somatosensory; fMRI.

unknown authors


Kinetic Analysis of Ex Vivo Human Blood Infection by


Summary: The leishmanioses, vector-borne diseases caused by the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania, are transmitted to susceptible mammals by infected phlebotomine sand flies that inoculate promastigotes into hemorrhagic pools created in host skin. We assumed that promastigotes are delivered to a blood pool, and analyzed early promastigote interactions (0– 5 min) with host components, which lead to parasite endocytosis by blood leukocytes, and to host infection. Promastigotes were incubated with NHS or with heparinized blood in near-physiological conditions, and we used cell radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry to measure the on-rate constants (k +1) of promastigote interactions with natural opsonins and erythrocytes. We obtained quantitative data for parasitized cells to determine the time-course of promastigote binding and internalization by blood leukocytes. In these reactions, promastigotes bind natural opsonins, immune adhere to erythrocytes and activate complement cytolysis, which kills,95 % of promastigotes by 2 min post-infection. C3promastigote binding is a key step in opsonization; nascent C3-promastigotes are the substrate for two simultaneous reactions, C3-promastigote immune adherence (IA) to erythrocytes and complement-mediated promastigote killing. The k+1 for IA was 75-fold greater than that for promastigote killing, showing that IA facilitates promastigote endocytosis and circumvents lysis. At 5 min post-infection, when reaction velocity is still linear and promastigote concentration is not limiting, 17.4 % of granulocytes and 10.7 % of monocytes had bound promastigotes, of which,50 % and,25%, respectively,

Inmaculada Moreno Mercedes Domínguez


Acute Abdominal Pain


Summary: Abdominal pain is a common complaint in all settings of medical practice. In the United States in 2002, abdominal pain was the chief complaint of over 7 million patients presenting to an emergency department (ED), accounting for 6.5 % of all patient visits [1]. In primary care practices in 2002, abdominal pain was a complaint of more than 13.5 million patient visits, accounting for 1.5 % of patient encounters [2]. In certain situations, abdominal pain may be a symptom of a severe, life-threatening disease process, whereas in other situations, it may be a symptom of a more benign underlying condition. This review provides a framework for understanding abdominal pain, so that practitioners may determine those patients who need a more expedited evaluation, and reviews the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying abdominal pain. A general approach to the patient is outlined, and several causes of abdominal pain are considered in detail, focusing on the most severe and commonly encountered. A general understanding of abdominal anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology is vital when formulating a differential diagnosis for abdominal pain. In addition, it is important to understand how abdominal pain is generated and perceived by the patient. The abdominal viscera are innervated with nociceptive afferents within the mesentery, on peritoneal surfaces, and within the mucosa and muscularis of hollow organs. These afferents respond to both mechanical and chemical stimuli, producing sensations of dull, crampy, insidious pain. The principal mechanical stimulus is stretching, whereas a variety of chemical stimuli, including substance P, serotonin, prostaglandins, and H þ ions, are perceived as noxious by visceral chemoreceptors [3]. Abdominal pain occurs in three broad patterns, visceral, parietal, and referred. Visceral nociception typically involves stretching and

Mark H. Flasar; Eric Goldberg




Summary: We report the results of a survey to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis and the presence of sand flies in northwestern Italy, where autochthonous foci of canine leishmaniasis have not been reported. Active foci of canine leishmaniasis were identified, which suggests that the disease is now also endemic in continental climate areas. Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is a zoonotic disease transmitted in Mediterranean areas by sand flies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus. Dogs are the main reservoir of infection, and in some diseaseendemic areas seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis is>30 % (1). Recently, the geographic distribution of canine leishmaniasis has spread (2), and new foci of disease have been reported in countries such as the United States (3). Global warming is a possible cause of spread of the disease to cooler areas (4), and the increased movement of infected animals from areas where the disease has traditionally been endemic can, together with the spread of sand fly vectors, facilitate this process. In Europe, both canine leishmaniasis and human visceral leishmaniasis are endemic in Mediterranean areas characterized by a dry, hot summer and mild winter temperatures (4). However, foci of canine leishmaniasis have never been reported in continental climate regions, which are characterized by large seasonal temperature changes between hot summer and cold winters. Until recently, stable endemic foci of both human visceral leishmaniosis and canine leishmaniasis have been present only in southern, central, and insular regions in Italy. However, new foci of canine leishmaniasis and the presence of competent sand fly vectors have also been reported in northern regions of the country, where autochthonous cases had not been reported previously (5,6). The Study A serologic survey for canine leishmaniasis was conducted in 3 areas of the Piedmont to study the spread of

Ezio Ferroglio; Michele Maroli; Silvia Gastaldo; Walter Mignone; Luca Rossi


Characterising food environment exposure at home, at work, and along commuting journeys using data on adults in the UK

  University of Cambridge - Dspace

Summary: J Prev Med 2012, 42:e37–e46. 6. Caspi CE, Sorensen G, Subramanian SV, Kawachi I: The local food environment and diet: a systematic review. Health Place 2012, 18:1172–1187. 7. Charreire H, Casey R, Salze P, Simon C, Chaix B, Banos A, Badariotti D... SJ, Forouhi NG, Wareham NJ, Ong KK: Association between birth weight and visceral fat in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2010, 92:347–352. 29. Smith D, Cummins S, Clark C, Stansfeld S: Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal...

Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo


} ImaGINe-S: Imaging Guided Interventional Needle Simulation


Summary: virtual reality}, Abstract = {We present an integrated system for training visceral needle puncture procedures. Our aim is to provide a cost effective and validated training tool that uses actual patient data to enable interventional radiology trainees to learn how to carry out image-guided needle puncture. The input data required is a computed tomography scan of the patient that is used to create the patient specific models. Force measurements have been made on real tissue and the resulting data is incorporated into the simulator. Respiration and soft tissue deformations are also carried out to further improve the fidelity of the simulator.},


Distribution of the internal iliac artery of the male cat

  Texas A&M University - TxSpace

Summary: part of the ureter. 10, 27 Bradley, Miller et al. , and Sisson and Grossman 3 26 30 agree that the umbilica. l artery in the dog also gives rise to a prostatic artery, which supplies the prostate and urethra, and an ar+ery of the ductus deferens... origin from any of the visceral branches of the internal iliac artery. The prostatic Arteries About 1 to 2 mm. posterior to the origin of the artery of the ductus deferens the internal pudendal artery gives rise to 1 or 2 prostatic arteries. . 27...

Bratton, Gerald Roy


To the Editor: In southern Europe,


Summary: zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum used to be considered a rural disease, but it is becoming more prevalent in urban areas. Outbreaks in urban/periurban settings are associated with the urbanization of natural zoonotic foci (1). The presence of a high number of stray dogs in urban/periurban settlements may contribute to the spread and increase of new infections. A canine survey was performed twice a month from December 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. A total of 374 dogs from urban areas of

Leishmaniasis In


Requirement for ?-catenin in anterior-posterior axis formation in mice


Summary: Abstract. The anterior-posterior axis of the mouse embryo is defined before formation of the primitive streak, and axis specification and subsequent anterior development involves signaling from both embryonic ectoderm and visceral endoderm. ?he Wnt signaling pathway is essential for various developmental processes, but a role in anterior-posterior axis formation in the mouse has not been previously established. ?-Catenin is a central player in the Wnt pathway and in cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. We generated ?-catenin–deficient mouse embryos and observed a defect in anterior-posterior axis formation at embryonic day 5.5, as visualized by the absence of Hex and Hesx1 and the mislocation of cerberus-like and Lim1 expression. Subsequently, no mesoderm and head structures are generated. Intercellular adhesion is maintained since plakoglobin substitutes for ?-catenin. Our data demonstrate that ?-catenin function is essential in anterior-posterior axis formation in the mouse, and experiments with chimeric embryos show that this function is required in the embryonic ectoderm. Key words: anterior visceral endoderm • Wnt/wingless pathway • cell adhesion • plakoglobin • armadillo

Joerg Huelsken; Regina Vogel; Volker Brinkmann; Bettina Erdmann; Carmen Birchmeier; Walter Birchmeier


International Journal of Psychophysiology 42 2001 123?146 The polyvagal theory: phylogenetic substrates of a social nervous system


Summary: The evolution of the autonomic nervous system provides an organizing principle to interpret the adaptive significance of physiological responses in promoting social behavior. According to the polyvagal theory, the well-documented phylogenetic shift in neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system passes through three global stages, each with an associated behavioral strategy. The first stage is characterized by a primitive unmyelinated visceral vagus that fosters digestion and responds to threat by depressing metabolic activity. Behaviorally, the first stage is associated with immobilization behaviors. The second stage is characterized by the sympathetic nervous system that is capable of increasing metabolic output and inhibiting the visceral vagus to foster mobilization behaviors necessary for ‘fight or flight’. The third stage, unique to mammals, is characterized by a myelinated vagus that can rapidly regulate cardiac output to foster engagement and disengagement with the environment. The mammalian vagus is neuroanatomically linked to the cranial nerves that regulate social engagement via facial expression and vocalization. As the autonomic nervous system changed through the process of evolution, so did the interplay between the autonomic nervous system and the other physiological systems that respond to stress, including the cortex, the hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenal axis, the neuropeptides of oxytocin and vasopressin, and the immune system. From this phylogenetic orientation, the polyvagal theory proposes a biological basis for social behavior and

Stephen W. Porges




Summary: It was proposed some fifty years ago that the visceral and hormonal changes accompanying fear and rage reactions can best be understood as adaptations which prepare an organism to cope with an emergency and specifically to perform the extreme muscular exertion of flight or attack. This is well exemplified by the pattern of cardiovascular response which is characteristic of the alerting stage of these reactions and consists of an increase in cardiac output directed mainly to the skeletal muscles. This group of behavioural responses has been collectively termed the defence reaction. The regions of the hypothalamus and brainstem which organize it have been mapped. They function as a reflex centre for the visceral components of the altering response as well as initiating the behavioural response. So far as the cardiovascular system is concerned, this is a preparatory reflex and not compatible with short-term homeostasis. Indeed, the baroreceptor reflex, which is homeostatic, is strongly inhibited. By contrast, the chemoreceptor reflex is facilitated. The input from peripheral

S. M. Hilton; Birmingham Btj U. K


Study on the pathogenesis of . . .


Summary: THE present prospective study showed that incidence of systemic infection in severe burn patients was 30.9%. Toxic shock and multiple organ failure (MOF) developed in all patients with uncontrolled systemic infection. Both morbidity and mortality of MOF were 76.5%. In the infection group, plasma TXB. and TXB2/6-keto-PGFI ratio increased markedly. Their changes were closely correlated with the clinical course and deterioration of systemic infection. Circulatory platelet aggregate ratio decreased significantly, while myocardiac enzyme spectrum greatly increased. Thrombi were observed in visceral tissues from patients dying of systemic infection. These suggested that TXA2/PGL. imbalance promoting microaggregate and thrombus formation may be one of the pathogenic effects of toxic shock and MOF in burn patients.

Li Ao (Ngao); Huang Yuesheng; Yang Zongcheng


Ozernaya River System, Kamchatka


Summary: Abstract.-Adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from the Ozernaya River near the outlet of Lake Kuril were infected with Myxobolus arcticus (Myxozoa) in the brain and spinal cord and with Philonema oncorhynchi (Nematoda) in the peritoneal cavity. Some of these sockeye salmon were affected by light visceral adhesions. This pathological condition was found in male fish only. Myxobolus arcticus was also found in the brain of adult Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma from a river flowing into Lake Kuril. There was no substantial difference in spore measurement of M. arcticus from salmonids among Kamchatka (Russia), Hokkaido (Japan), and British Columbia (Canada). The Dolly Varden carried Salmincola carpionis (Copepoda) on the roof and floor of the buccal cavity and Anisakis

Hokkaido Salmon Iiatcbery; Kazuya Nagasawa; Shigehiko Urawa; Vladimir A. D~binin




Summary: SUMMARY.-A possible basis for the differences in malignancy between three closely related sublines of the WBP1 ascites tumour of the rat has been studied by examining the biochemical changes in rat sera during tumour growth in vivo. Death appeared to be due to hypoglycaemia and the ability to induce this condition correlated with the differences in malignancy between the sublines; WBP1 (X) and WBP1 (V), the more malignant sublines, inducing hypoglycaemia earlier and more rapidly than the least malignant subline WBP1 (A). Possible mechanisms whereby the tumour produces these effects are discussed. SMITH, WILLIAMS, LoWERY AND KEPPIE (1968) and Williams, Lowery and Smith (1968), described the production of two ascites sublines of differing malignancy derived from a benzopyrene-induced rat tumour (WBPI) and compared their patterns of intraperitoneal growth and blood and visceral invasion. WBP1 (A) killed rats in approximately 31 days (I x 101 cells i.p.) and WBPI (V) in

R. A. Killington; A. E. Williams; N. A. Ratcliffe; T. P. Whitehead; Andh Smith


doi:10.1155/2011/939023 Review Article The Animal Model of Spinal Cord Injury as an Experimental Pain Model


Summary: Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Pain, which remains largely unsolved, is one of the most crucial problems for spinal cord injury patients. Due to sensory problems, as well as motor dysfunctions, spinal cord injury research has proven to be complex and difficult. Furthermore, many types of pain are associated with spinal cord injury, such as neuropathic, visceral, and musculoskeletal pain. Many animal models of spinal cord injury exist to emulate clinical situations, which could help to determine common mechanisms of pathology. However, results can be easily misunderstood and falsely interpreted. Therefore, it is important to fully understand the symptoms of human spinal cord injury, as well as the various spinal cord injury models and the possible pathologies. The present paper summarizes results from animal models of spinal cord injury, as well as the most effective use of these models. 1.



Substance name Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP)


Summary: Butylbenzyl phthalate has been classified as a developmental and a reproductive toxicant by the National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction 1 and by the state of California. 2 The National Toxicology Program concluded that there is clear evidence of developmental toxicity and some evidence of male reproductive toxicity. 1 Efffects in animals included reduced sperm counts, reduced male fertility, prenatal mortality, and skeletal, visceral, and external malformations. 1 Butylbenzyl phthalate has been classified as a Category 1 endocrine disruptor by the European Union. 3 Exposure The Danish EPA found butylbenzyl phthalate in the coating of a wood toy. 4 A Dutch study of plastics in children’s products found butylbenzyl phthalate in 2 out of 7 polyurethane plastics. 5 Mono-benzyl

unknown authors


GASTROENTEROLOGY 2006;130:1391–1411 Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology: Basic Science


Summary: enteric nervous system (ENS). To avoid duplication with Rome II, only advances in ENS neurobiology after Rome II are reviewed together with stronger emphasis on interactions of the brain, spinal cord, and the gut in terms of relevance for abdominal pain and disordered gastrointestinal function. A committee with expertise in selective aspects of neurogastroenterology was invited to evaluate the literature and provide a consensus overview of the Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology textbook as they relate to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review is an abbreviated version of a fuller account that appears in the forthcoming book, Rome III. This report reviews current basic science understanding of visceral sensation and its modulation by inflammation and stress and advances in the neurophysiology

David Grundy; Elie D. Al–chaer; Qasim Aziz; Stephen M. Collins; Meiyun Ke; Yvette Taché; Jackie D. Wood


www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms Functions and Mechanisms of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster


Summary: Abstract: Intercellular signalling via growth factors plays an important role in controlling cell differentiation and cell movements during the development of multicellular animals. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signalling induces changes in cellular behaviour allowing cells in the embryo to move, to survive, to divide or to differentiate. Several examples argue that FGF signalling is used in multi-step morphogenetic processes to achieve and maintain a transitional state of the cells required for the control of cell fate. In the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, FGF signalling via the receptor tyrosine kinases Heartless (Htl) and Breathless (Btl) is particularly well studied. These FGF receptors affect gene expression, cell shape and cell–cell interactions during mesoderm layer formation, caudal visceral muscle (CVM) formation, tracheal morphogenesis and glia differentiation. Here, we will address the current knowledge of the biological functions of FGF signalling in the fly on the tissue, at a cellular and molecular level.

Villö Muha; Hans-arno J. Müller


Available online:


Summary: Diabetes mellitus has now assumed epidemic proportions in many countries of the world. With the present population of 19.4 million diabetics, and approximately 60 million by the year 2025, India would rank first in its share of the global burden of diabetes. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is an extensive neural network whose main role is to regulate the milieu intérieur by controlling homeostasis and visceral functions. Diabetes mellitus is most commonly associated with autonomic dysfunction, in persons with diabetes; prolonged hyperglycemia leads to degradation of the microvasculature, leading to a specific form of autonomic dysfunction firmed “Diabetes Autonomic Neuropathy”. The diagnosis of Autonomic Neuropathy is often difficult to establish in individuals, since clinical symptoms generally appear late in the course of the disease and may be nonspecific, Early detection of Autonomic Neuropathy would suggest the need for an aggressive approach in the management of diabetes mellitus with the help of simple autonomic function test.

Ekambaram Gnanadesigan; Balumahendran K; Gnanagurudasan E


Quantitative studies of pinocytosis. I. Kinetics of uptake of t2~l-polyvinylpyrrulidine by rat yolk sac cultured in vitro


Summary: A method is described for the in vitro culture of 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac. Tissue survival was good as judged by light and electron microscopy. The rate of pinocytic uptake of ~25I-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone by the tissue was constant both within and between experiments. Within the concentration range 0.15-24 ~tg/ml, the a2~I-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone neither stimulated nor inhibited pinocytosis. The system offers many advantages in the quantitative study of the physical basis of pinocytosis. Many important questions concerning pinocytosis remain unanswered. For example, do pinocyticaily ingested solutes enter chiefly in free solution, or adsorbed to the plasma membrane? By what means and to what extent can pinocytosis be stimulated and inhibited? Such questions can be answered only by experiments in which pinocytosis

Kenneth E. Williams; Elizabeth M. Kidston; Felix Beck; John B. Lloyd


Afadin: a key molecule essential for structural organization of cell–cell junctions of polarized epithelia during embryogenesis


Summary: Abstract. Afadin is an actin filament–binding protein that binds to nectin, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, and is colocalized with nectin at cadherin-based cell–cell adherens junctions (AJs). To explore the function of afadin in cell–cell adhesion during embryogenesis, we generated afadin ?/ ? mice and embryonic stem cells. In wild-type mice at embryonic days 6.5–8.5, afadin was highly expressed in the embryonic ectoderm and the mesoderm, but hardly detected in the extraembryonic regions such as the visceral endoderm. Afadin ?/ ? mice showed developmental defects at stages during and after gastrulation, including disorganization of the ectoderm, impaired migration of the mesoderm, and loss of somites and other structures derived from both the ectoderm and the mesoderm. Cystic embryoid

Wataru Ikeda; Hiroyuki Nakanishi; Jun Miyoshi; Kenji M; Hiroyoshi Ishizaki; Miki Tanaka; Atushi Togawa; Kenichi Takahashi; Hideo Nishioka; Hisahiro Yoshida; Akira Mizoguchi; Shin-ichi Nishikawa; Yoshimi Takai


Patterns of gene expression during Drosophila mesoderm development


Summary: The transcription factor Twist initiates Drosophila mesoderm development, resulting in the formation of heart, somatic muscle, and other cell types. Using a Drosophila embryo sorter, we isolated enough homozygous twist mutant embryos to perform DNA microarray experiments. Transcription profiles of twist loss-of-function embryos, embryos with ubiquitous twist expression, and wild-type embryos were compared at different developmental stages. The results implicate hundreds of genes, many with vertebrate homologs, in stagespecific processes in mesoderm development. One such gene, gleeful, related to the vertebrate Gli genes, is essential for somatic muscle development and sufficient to cause neural cells to express a muscle marker. Formation of muscles during embryonic development is a complex process that requires coordinate actions of many genes. Somatic, visceral, and heart muscle are all derived from mesoderm progenitor cells. The Drosophila

Eileen E. M. Furlong; Erik C. Andersen; Brian Null; Kevin P. White; Matthew P. Scott


Exploring affective design for physical controls


Summary: Physical controls such as knobs, sliders, and buttons are experiencing a revival as many computing systems progress from personal computing architectures towards ubiquitous computing architectures. We demonstrate a process for measuring and comparing visceral emotional responses of a physical control to performance results of a target acquisition task. In our user study, participants experienced mechanical and rendered friction, inertia, and detent dynamics as they turned a haptic knob towards graphical targets of two different widths and amplitudes. Together, this process and user study provide novel affect- and performance-based design guidance to developers of physical controls for emerging ubiquitous computing environments. Our work bridges extensive human factors work in mechanical systems that peaked in the 1960’s, to contemporary trends, with a goal of integrating mechatronic controls into emerging ubiquitous computing systems. Author Keywords Haptic display, physical control, design process, affect,

Colin Swindells; Karon E. Maclean; Kellogg S. Booth; Michael J. Meitner


ORIGINAL ARTICLE Critical Role of the Mesenteric Depot Versus Other Intra-abdominal Adipose Depots in the Development of Insulin Resistance in Young Rats


Summary: OBJECTIVE—Age-associated insulin resistance may be caused by increased visceral adiposity and older animals appear to be more susceptible to obesity-related resistance than young animals. However, it is unclear to what extent the portally drained mesenteric fat depot influences this susceptibility. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Young high-fat–fed and old obese rats were subjected to 0, 2, 4, or 6 weeks of caloric restriction. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was assessed by hyperinsulinemic clamp and lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat were assessed by 18 O-water administration. RESULTS—Six weeks of caloric restriction caused a similar reduction in body weight in young and old animals (P ? 0.748) that was not due to reduced subcutaneous fat or LBM, but rather preferential loss of abdominal fat (P ? 0.05). Most notably, mesenteric fat was reduced equivalently in young and old rats

Karyn J. Catalano; Darko Stefanovski; Richard N. Bergman


L and Filmus J OCI5/GPC3, a glypican encoded by a gene that is mutated in the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel overgrowth syndrome, induces apoptosis in a cell line-specific manner


Summary: Abstract. OCI-5/GPC3 is a member of the glypican family. Glypicans are heparan sulfate proteoglycans that are bound to the cell surface through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. It has recently been shown that the OCI-5/GPC3 gene is mutated in patients with the Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS), an X-linked disorder characterized by pre- and postnatal overgrowth and various visceral and skeletal dysmorphisms. Some of these dysmorphisms could be the result of deficient growth inhibition or apoptosis in certain cell types during development. Here we present evidence indicating that OCI-5/GPC3 induces apoptosis in cell lines derived from mesothelioma (II14) and breast cancer (MCF-7). This induction, however, is cell line specific since it is not observed in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

Alfonso Dueñas Gonzalez; Mitsunori Kaya; Wen Shi; Howard Song; Joseph R. Testa; Linda Z. Penn; Jorge Filmus


Experience-based and description-based perceptions of long-term risk: why global warming does not scare us (yet


Summary: Abstract. It should come as no surprise that the governments and citizenries of many countries show little concern about climate change and its consequences. Behavioral decision research over the last 30 years provides a series of lessons about the importance of affect in perceptions of risk and in decisions to take actions that reduce or manage perceived risks. Evidence from a range of domains suggests that worry drives risk management decisions. When people fail to be alarmed about a risk or hazard, they do not take precautions. Recent personal experience strongly influences the evaluation of a risky option. Low-probability events generate less concern than their probability warrants on average, but more concern than they deserve in those rare instances when they do occur. Personal experience with noticeable and serious consequences of global warming is still rare in many regions of the world. When people base their decisions on statistical descriptions about a hazard provided by others, characteristics of the hazard identified as psychological risk dimensions predict differences in alarm or worry across different classes of risk. The time-delayed, abstract, and often statistical nature of the risks of global warming does not evoke strong visceral reactions. These results suggest that we should find ways to evoke visceral reactions towards the risk of global warming, perhaps by simulations of its concrete future consequences for people’s home or other regions they visit or value. Increased concern about global warming needs to solicited carefully, however, to prevent a decrease in concern about other relevant risks. The generation of worry or concern about global warming may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for desirable or appropriate protective or mitigating behavior on part of the general public. 1.

Elke U. Weber


PDL Class: Synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor analog Comparator Therapies: None Dossier received: Yes


Summary: FDA Approved Indications: Tesamorelin is a growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) analog indicated for the reduction of excess abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy. 1 Background/Reason for Review: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) taking antiretroviral therapy frequently develop increased visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, which may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Studies have shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has shown positive changes in fat distribution in HIV-infected patients. 1, 2 Tesamorelin is a synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor analog that has been approved for the use of HIV infected patients with lipodystrophy. This review will evaluate the available evidence of efficacy, safety, and tolerability to further define its role in therapy and to identify potential parameters for use. Issues/Key questions: Is tesamorelin effective and safe for the treatment of excess abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients? Does treatment with tesamorelin result in improved health outcomes? Efficacy: There were two, Phase 3, randomized, controlled studies that evaluated the efficacy of tesamorelin compared to placebo; both studies conducted an initial 26-week phase and a 26-week extension phase to evaluate long-term safety. 7-9 Both studies saw a significant change in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in patients treated with tesamorelin (-15.2 % and-10.9%) compared to placebo (+5.0 % and-0.6%, p<0.001 for both trials). Secondary efficacy endpoints from the extension phases indicate that this decrease in VAT is not maintained after treatment discontinuation. There was limited reduction in body mass index or waist circumference after 26 weeks after treatment with tesamorelin.

Executive Summary


Printed in Singapore Prognostic Factors in Patients With Spontaneous Pneumothorax Treated With Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy


Summary: To analyse the efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopy (VAT) in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) and to identify clinical factors associated with outcome after VAT, one hundred and one VATs were performed in 97 patients in this prospective study. Based on thoracoscopic appearance of the visceral pleura three groups were identified, group (n 23) showing no abnormalities treated with talcage, group 2 (n 23) showing bullae less than 2 cm treated with talcage and coagulation, and group 3 (n 51) showing bullae larger than 2 cm treated with bullectomy by staplers, coagulation and pleural scarification. Data were analyzed with regard to clinical factors such as age, smoking behavior, pulmonary function and recurrent pneumothorax at presentation. No perioperative deaths occurred. Overall relapse rate was 4.0 % during a follow-up period of 3 to 38 months (median 27.2). Univariate analysis did not show any association of clinical factors with postoperative complications (n 19). Patients with extensive pulmonary lesions had longer drainage and hospitalization time, probably due to insufficient sealing effects of stapler devices and/or pleural scarification. Using multivariate analysis, none of the clinical factors had any association with complication rate, drainage/hospitalization time or relapses after VAT. Only patients with bullae larger than 2 cm treated with bullectomy by stapler devices were associated with longer drainage and hospitalization

Franz M. N. H. Schramel; Tom G. Sutedja; Julius P. Janssen; Miguel A. Cuesta; Johan C. Van Mourik; Pieter E. Postmus


Open Access Solitary fibrous tumor of the liver: a case report


Summary: Hepatic solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare tumor originating from the mesenchyme. Here we report a new case of SFT in the liver and review the clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The patient was a 59-year-old man who presented with progressive fatigue for 3 months and an abdominal mass for 3 days. On laboratory tests, no abnormality was detected except that abdominal ultrasonography revealed a 9.0 × 6.2 cm hypoechogenic mass in the left lobe of the liver. A computed tomographic scan confirmed a hypodense lesion in the left lobe of the liver. The patient underwent left hepatectomy. SFT was diagnosed on the basis of histopathological findings. The patient was free from all symptoms and had no signs of local recurrence after 24 months ’ follow up. Background Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, first described by Klemperer and Robin in the visceral pleura in 1931 [1]. It usuallyisfoundinthethoraciccavityandpleura,but, rarely, it can involve other organs such as the mediastinum

Case Report; Ke Sun; Jian-ju Lu; Xiao-dong Teng; Li-xiong Ying; Jian-feng Wei


gloves under real surgical conditions


Summary: Background: The aim of this study was to confirm recent results from a previous study focussing on the development of a method to measure the bacterial translocation through puncture holes in surgical gloves under real surgical conditions. Methods: An established method was applied to detect bacterial migration from the operating site through the punctured glove. Biogel ™ double-gloving surgical gloves were used during visceral surgeries over a 6-month period. A modified Gaschen-bag method was used to retrieve organisms from the inner glove, and thus-obtained bacteria were compared with micro-organisms detected by an intra-operative swab. Results: In 20 consecutive procedures, 194 gloves (98 outer gloves, 96 inner gloves) were examined. The rate of microperforations of the outer surgical glove was 10 % with a median wearing time of 100 minutes (range: 20-175 minutes). Perforations occurred in 81 % on the non-dominant hand, with the index finger most frequently (25%) punctured. In six cases, bacterial migration could be demonstrated microbiologically. In 5 % (5/98) of outer gloves and in 1 % (1/96) of the inner gloves, bacterial migration through micro-perforations was observed. For gloves with detected microperforations (n = 10 outer layers), the calculated migration was 50 % (n = 5). The minimum wearing time was 62 minutes, with a calculated median wearing time of 71 minutes.

Nils-olaf Hübner; Anna-maria Goerdt; Natalie Stanislawski; Ojan Assadian; Claus-dieter Heidecke; Axel Kramer; Lars Ivo Partecke




Summary: Background: Pain is a common complication after spinal cord injury which can significantly impact upon a person’s functional ability and independence, ability to return to work and quality of life. Spinal cord injury patients suffer from several types of pain such as musculoskeletal pain, visceral pain, Neuropathic pain. Musculoskeletal pain generally arises from bones, joints, ligaments and muscles either in the acute post-injury phase or with chronic overuse in spinal cord injury patients. Purpose: The purpose of present study is to find out the incidence of musculoskeletal pain and its impact on daily and functional activities in Indian spinal cord injury patients. Materials and Methods: Hundred spinal cord injured patients were recruited for the study. Patients were asked to report any musculoskeletal pain and intensity of pain was measured by numerical rating scale. Impact on daily activities due to musculoskeletal pain was calculated by individual items score as well as total score of modified Brief pain inventory. Impact on functional activities was calculated by spinal cord independence measure. Results: Incidence of musculoskeletal pain was found to be 68%. Musculoskeletal pain intensity measured in numerical rating scale was found to be significantly correlated with impact on daily activities measured by total modified Brief pain inventory score as well as different items score of modified brief pain inventory (P< 0.001). Intensity of musculoskeletal pain was also significantly correlated with impact


Reciprocal expression of interferon y or interleukin 4 during the resolution or progression of murine leishmaniasis . Evidence for expansion of distinct helper T cell subsets


Summary: Leishmania species cause a spectrum of illness that ranges from asymptomatic seroconversion to progressive and ultimately fatal infection. Although many manifestations of this disease are due to differences among the Leishmania species themselves, host factors are clearly important in determining whether infection is controlled or allowed to progress inexorably (1). Murine infection with Leishmania major mimics human infection due to L. donovani. Both self-limited and progressive visceral infections occur; the latter is accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Among inbred mouse strains, non-MHC II-linked genetic susceptibility to dissemination has been well characterized. Although both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice are susceptible to infection with L. major, C57BL/6 mice resolve infection with the establishment of lasting immunity, whereas BALB/c mice fail to control local replication ofthe parasite and suffer fatal progressive disease. In C57BL/6 mice, the ability to control infection has been linked directly to parasite-specific Th by various cell transfer and depletion experiments (2, 3) ; neither Lyt-2+ T cells (4) nor NK cells (5) are critical

P. Heinzel; Michael D. Sadick; Bettie J Holaday; Robert L Coffmanj; Richard; M Locksley


Risk of Infection with Leishmania spp. in the Canine Population in the Netherlands


Summary: 195-201. – The dog is the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in humans in Southern Europe. In order to identify the risk of dogs from a Leishmania non-endemic area traveling to a Leishmania-endemic area becoming infected and the risk of transmitting infection to humans in non-endemic areas an investigation was performed, in which the results of a questionnaire were combined with the results of a serologic survey. The questionnaire was sent to 1478 at random chosen families in the Netherlands. Of the 59.0 % responders 28.0 % had one or more dogs and 4.8 % of these dogs had visited Southern Europe during the summer period of that year. On a total population of 1,200,000 dogs in the Netherlands, this means that each year some 58,000 dogs are at risk of being exposed to a Leishmania infection in Southern Europe. During the period 1990-1992 blood was collected for serology in 1911 dogs presented to the Utrecht University Clinic because of clinical problems not related to leishmaniasis, of which 434 had been in Southern Europe in the foregoing years. None was serologically positive. From these data it can be deduced that the highest chance to obtain


Diabetes and Abdominal Surgery: The Mutual Risks


Summary: The patient with diabetes represents to the surgeon a particular challenge in the management of acute abdominal problems. In addition to their ongoing and potential metabolic problems, diabetics have specific difficulty in their ability to handle infections and heal wounds. The present report reviews the general principles in the peri-operative management of diabetics and discusses the implications in the diabetic of several specific clinical problems. In view of the known accelerated atherosclerosis associated with diabetes, the risks of anesthesia and surgery must be assessed in the context of the coronary, cerebral, visceral, and peripheral vascular status. Infections in diabetics (potential or established) must be treated aggressively and promptly. Acidosis in the diabetic with abdominal pain must be considered both a metabolic problem and a possible secondary manifestation of an intra-abdominal process. In view of these challenges, the need for careful, anticipatory management of the diabetic patient facing major abdominal surgery is clear. The management of surgical problems in diabetic patients represents a common but significant challenge. Approximately 3-4 percent of the general population is affected by diabetes, and about one-half of them will eventually require surgery. It has

Richard J. Gusberg; Jeffrey Moley


Convergent Evolution in Aquatic Tetrapods: Insights from an Exceptional Fossil Mosasaur


Summary: Mosasaurs (family Mosasauridae) are a diverse group of secondarily aquatic lizards that radiated into marine environments during the Late Cretaceous (98–65 million years ago). For the most part, they have been considered to be simple anguilliform swimmers – i.e., their propulsive force was generated by means of lateral undulations incorporating the greater part of the body – with unremarkable, dorsoventrally narrow tails and long, lizard-like bodies. Convergence with the specialized fusiform body shape and inferred carangiform locomotory style (in which only a portion of the posterior body participates in the thrust-producing flexure) of ichthyosaurs and metriorhynchid crocodyliform reptiles, along with cetaceans, has so far only been recognized in Plotosaurus, the most highly derived member of the Mosasauridae. Here we report on an exceptionally complete specimen (LACM 128319) of the moderately derived genus Platecarpus that preserves soft tissues and anatomical details (e.g., large portions of integument, a partial body outline, putative skin color markings, a downturned tail, branching bronchial tubes, and probable visceral traces) to an extent that has never been seen previously in any mosasaur. Our study demonstrates that a streamlined body plan and crescent-shaped caudal fin were already well established in Platecarpus, a taxon that preceded Plotosaurus by 20 million years. These new data expand our understanding

Johan Lindgren; Michael W. Caldwell; Takuya Konishi


Review Article Methods of Control of the Leishmania infantum Dog Reservoir: State of the Art


Summary: Copyright © 2011 Michele Podaliri Vulpiani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Leishmania infantum is a protozoan parasite causing severe vector-borne visceral diseases both in humans and dogs. The latter are the most important natural reservoir and therefore should be the main target of control measures. The real efficacy of seropositive dogs culling as a direct control method is still debated, and the new sensitivity of large part of population considers ethically unacceptable this kind of approach. Treatment of infectious dogs with one of the available therapeutic protocols is recommendable as it allows to reduce parasite burdens and therefore the possibility of transmission of Leishmania infantum to vectors. Vaccination hasbeenproventobeaveryeffective control tool, but the absence of a commonly recognized diagnostic method able to distinguish vaccinate from seropositive individuals is still an important limit. Concerning indirect control methods, a number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of topical insecticides treatment (collars, spot-on, and sprays) in reducing incidence and prevalence of L. infantum. Also, the reduction of the odds of seroconversion in humans in endemic areas has been reported after the application of indirect control measures on dogs. The contemporary use of direct and indirect methods is even more effective in reducing seroprevalence in dogs. 1.

Michele Podaliri Vulpiani; Luigi Iannetti; Daniela Paganico; Filomena Iannino; Nicola Ferri


Research Article Natural Breeding Places for Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Semiarid Region of Bahia State, Brazil


Summary: Copyright © 2012 Bruno Sangiorgi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides. 1.

Bruno Sangiorgi; Daniel Neves Mir; Diego Ferreira Oliveira; Edivaldo Passos Santos; A Regis Gomes; Edna Oliveira Santos; Aldina Barral; José Carlos Mir


RESEARCH Open Access Study of house-level risk factors associated in the transmission of Indian Kala-azar


Summary: Background: In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), phlebotomine vectors are the main target to reduce for control measures. An attempt has been taken to delineate the association between Phlebotomous argentipes and housing characteristics between two districts e.g. endemic and non-endemic. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 240 households for both the endemic (Vaishali district) and non-endemic (Lohardaga district) site. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to housing characteristics influencing suitable habitats for P. argentipes. Vector density estimated using a CDC light trap. Results: The proportion of P. argentipes in both endemic and non-endemic areas was significantly much higher (P < 0.001) when compared with the proportion of Sergentomiya and P. papatasi. The results of multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that mud plastered wall (P value = 0.001), mixed dwelling (P value = 0.002) and area (P value = 0.001) were strongly associated with the presence of vectors. Conclusion: Result of the studied household characteristics provides an accurate, rapid assessment of house-level variation in risk. The results also have implications for maximizing surveillance efficacy of sandflies, which is likely to become increasingly important while formulating any control strategy. Background

Shreekant Kesari; Gouri Sankar Bhunia; Vijay Kumar; Algarswamy Jeyaram; Alok Ranjan; Pradeep Das


Phlebotomine Fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Putative Vectors of Leishmaniases in Impacted Area by


Summary: Background: Although leishmaniases are regarded as serious public health issues in the State of Tocantins, as consequence of the impact of environmental changes, small advances in taxonomic and ecological studies of Phlebotominae fauna are taking place in this state. The present study aimed to improve the knowledge about the sand flies, as well as about the aspects of the bioecology of leishmaniases vectors from Porto Nacional, a city that was directly impacted by the construction of Luís Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Plant (HEP – Lajeado). Methodology/Principal Findings: Sand flies were collected monthly using CDC light traps and Shannon traps for a period of 40 consecutive months, at different monitoring stations, where 7162 specimens were collected and 48 species were detected. Among the species found, 22 are first records in the state and seven are considered important vectors of leishmaniases. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) showed higher frequency in urban compared to rural areas, and Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL), predominated in rural areas. The frequency and habits of sand fly vectors are discussed considering environmental characteristics and climatic factors. Conclusions/Significance: The construction of dams requires a great amount of labor, therefore attracting people from elsewhere. Increased migration, without adequate structure, leads to bad living conditions in new and unplanned

Hydroelectric Plant; State Of Tocantins; Maurício Luiz Vilela; Carina Graser Azevedo; Bruno M. Carvalho; Elizabeth F. Rangel


Risk assessment for canine leishmaniasis spreading in the north of Italy


Summary: Abstract. The incidence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis has not only been recognized but is, in fact, increasing in territories of northern continental Italy previously regarded as non-endemic. Recent findings of sporadic autochthonous canine infections and the presence of phlebotomine vectors in some provinces of north-eastern Italy have stimulated risk assessment for the spreading of leishmaniasis in the autonomous province of Bolzano-South Tyrol, the northernmost territory of the Italian eastern Alps. In July 2008, 61 phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) were caught and identified as Phlebotomus perniciosus and Sergentomyia minuta. This is the first record in South Tyrol of P. perniciosus, the most competent vector of Leishmania infantum in Mediterranean countries. Leishmania serology on local dogs kept in kennels gave negative results, while only imported canine leishmaniasis cases were reported by local veterinarians through a questionnaire survey. Bio-geographic aspects and epidemiological consequences are analyzed in relation with the risk of leishmaniasis introduction into the area. Keywords: Phlebotomus perniciosus, sand flies, Leishmania infantum, canine, leishmaniasis, Italy.

Giulia Morosetti; Gioia Bongiorno; Bernadett Beran; Aldo Scalone; Judith Moser; Marina Gramiccia; Luigi Gradoni; Michele Maroli


Review Article Distribution and Abundance of Phlebotominae, Vectors of Leishmaniasis, in Argentina: Spatial and Temporal Analysis


Summary: Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The spatial-temporal analysis of the abundance of insects, vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), was performed in Argentina using spatial-temporal increasing scales. In the microscale (microfocal), the effect of the primary vegetation-crop interface in vector abundance was observed, and also how the shelters, food sources, and other environmental characteristics contribute to habitat microheterogeneity and so to a microheterogeneous vector distribution. In the mesoscale (locality or epidemic focus), the results from different foci of TL (rural and periurban) and VL (urban) suggested a metapopulation structure determined partially by quantifiable habitat variables that could explain the increase of risk associated to an increase of vector-human contact due to climatic or anthropogenic changes. In the macroscale (regional), captures of vectors and records of human cases allowed the construction of risk maps and predictive models of vector distribution. In conclusion, in order to obtain valid results transferrable to control programs from spatial studies, special attention should be paid in order to assure the

At Different Scales; María Gabriela Quintana; María Soledad Fernández; Oscar Daniel Salomón


Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Catalase Is Important for Female Lutzomyia longipalpis Fecundity and Mortality


Summary: The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), the disseminated and most serious form of the disease in Central and South America. In the natural environment, most female L. longipalpis are thought to survive for less than 10 days and will feed on blood only once or twice during their lifetime. Successful transmission of parasites occurs when a Leishmania-infected female sand fly feeds on a new host. Knowledge of factors affecting sand fly longevity that lead to a reduction in lifespan could result in a decrease in parasite transmission. Catalase has been found to play a major role in survival and fecundity in many insect species. It is a strong antioxidant enzyme that breaks down toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ovarian catalase was found to accumulate in the developing sand fly oocyte from 12 to 48 hours after blood feeding. Catalase expression in ovaries as well as oocyte numbers was found to decrease with age. This reduction was not found in flies when fed on the antioxidant ascorbic acid in the sugar meal, a condition that increased mortality and activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade. RNA interference was used to silence catalase gene expression in female Lu. longipalpis. Depletion of catalase led to a significant increase of mortality and a reduction in the number of developing oocytes produced after blood feeding. These results demonstrate the central role

Hector Diaz-albiter; Roanna Mitford; O A. Genta; Mauricio R. V. Sant’anna; Rod J. Dillon


RESEARCH Distinct Transmission Cycles of


Summary: Transmission of Leishmania tropica was studied in 2 adjacent foci in Israel where vector populations differ. Only Phlebotomus sergenti was found infected with L. tropica in the southern focus; P. arabicus was the main vector in the northern focus. Rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) were incriminated as reservoir hosts in both foci. L. tropica strains from the northern focus isolated from sand flies, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, and rock hyraxes were antigenically similar to L. major, and strains from the southern focus were typically L. tropica. Laboratory studies showed that P. arabicus is a competent vector of L. tropica, and P. sergenti is essentially refractory to L. tropica from the northern focus. Susceptibility of P. arabicus may be mediated by O glycoproteins on the luminal surface of its midgut. The 2 foci differ with respect to parasites and vectors, but increasing peridomestic rock hyrax populations are probably responsible for emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in both foci. Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases with a wide range of clinical symptoms and currently threaten 350 million persons in 88 countries (1). In Israel and its vicinity, Leishmania major and L. tropica cause cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and L. infantum can result in visceral leishmaniasis (2). Until recently, relatively little information was available on the epidemiology of CL caused by L. tropica in this region. Outbreaks were not investigated, and cases were usually grouped together with CL cases caused by L. major (3). However, in recent years, new foci of CL caused by L. tropica are emerging in different parts of the country,

Gad Baneth; Julia Sztern; Vasiliy Kravchenko; Amnon Orr; David Meir; Lionel F. Schnur; Petr Volf; Alon Warburg


unknown title


Summary: Leishmaniasis has been known for many hundreds of years, with one of the first clinical descriptions made in 1756 by Alexander Russell and called Aleppo boil. Many names correspond to this group of diseases: kala-azar, Dum-dum fever, white leprosy, espundia, pian bois, and so on. Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases spread by the bite of the infected female phlebotomine sand fly (Fig. 6.1). Leishmaniases are caused by approximately 20 species, pathogenic for humans, belonging to the genus Leishmania (kinetoplastids order, Honigberg, 1963) and within 500 known phlebotomine species, of which only some 30 have been positively identified as vectors of these pathogenic species. 6.1.1 Geographic Distribution Human leishmaniases are found on all continents, except Antarctic and Australia. However, cutaneous leishmaniasis was recently revealed in Australian red kangaroos [296]. Approximately 350 million people live in endemic areas, thereby comprising populations at risk, and annual incidence is estimated at 1–1.5 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis plus 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis; overall prevalence

M. Hide; B. Bucheton; S. Kamhawi; R. Bras-gonçalves; S. Sundar J. -l. Lemesre; A. -l. Ba


Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Review Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gut Microbiota and


Summary: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex disorder characterized by abdominal symptoms including chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS is multifactorial, as abnormal gut motility, visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed neural function of the brain-gut axis and an abnormal autonomic nervous system are all implicated in disease progression. Based on recent experimental and clinical studies, it has been suggested that additional etiological factors including low-grade inflammation, altered gut microbiota and alteration in the gut immune system play important roles in the pathogenesis of IBS. Therefore, therapeutic restoration of altered intestinal microbiota may be an ideal treatment for IBS. Probiotics are live organisms that are believed to cause no harm and result in health benefits for the host. Clinical efficacy of probiotics has been shown in the treatment or prevention of some gastrointestinal inflammation-associated disorders including traveler’s diarrhea, antibiotics-associated diarrhea, pouchitis of the restorative ileal pouch and necrotizing enterocolitis. The molecular mechanisms, as cause of IBS pathogenesis, affected by altered gut microbiota and gut inflammation-immunity are reviewed. The effect of probiotics on the gut inflammation-immune systems and the results from clinical trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS are also summarized. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011;17:252-266)

Beom Jae Lee; Young-tae Bak


Self-interest, automaticity, and the psychology of conflict of interest


Summary: This paper argues that self-interest and concern for others influence behavior through different cognitive systems. Self-interest is automatic, viscerally com-pelling, and often unconscious. Understanding one’s ethical and professional obligations to others, in contrast, often involves a more thoughtful process. The automatic nature of self-interest gives it a primal power to influence judgment and make it difficult for people to understand its influence on their judgment, let alone eradicate its influence. This dual-process view offers new insights into how conflict of interest operate and it suggests some new avenues for addressing them or limiting some of their greatest dangers. KEY WORDS: conflict of interest; dual process; self-interest; professionalism. Conflicts of interest are at the heart of many of the recent scandals that have shaken the U.S. economy. Conflicts of interest like those between a firm’s man-agers, its shareholders, and its auditors have existed for some time. Why is it that they have recently resulted in such colossal business failures?3 A common theme in many discussions of recent scandals is that problems have followed changes in pro-fessional mindset. In earlier times, auditors saw their task as that of a detective—to ferret out errors and inconsistencies in the client’s accounts. For example, Arthur Andersen, in his early days as an auditor, discovered that a large client of his was inflating profit reports by incorrectly classifying routine expenses as capital in-vestments. When the client demanded that Andersen provide a clean audit report,

Don A. Moore; George Loewenstein




Summary: Studies on transmission of neurotropic yellow fever virus by mosquitoes have a bearing on the practical problem of vaccination against yellow fever by the method of Sawyer, Kitchen, and Lloyd (1), and on the more theoretical question of reversion of neurotropic virus to the viscerotropic type. Dinger (2) has reported the production of typical visceral lesions in monkeys by mosquitoes which carried a strain of neurotropic virus. The insects had been induced to feed on a mixture of infected mouse brains and normal blood. However, the strain of virus had been adapted to mice quite recently (tenth to twelfth passages). We are convinced that the longer established French strain (Theiler (3)) acts somewhat differently in mosquitoes. The present method of vaccination (1) calls for the injection of a small dose of living neurotropic virus, and for the simultaneous administration of large amounts of immune serum. Considering the small dosage of virus used and the difficulty with which mosquitoes acquire infectivity with the strain, it is inconceivable that vaccinated persons might become a menace to their fellows even in the absence of isolation and protection by screens. On Nov. 22, 1931, F.L.S. was vaccinated by the usual procedure. 15 hours later he was fed upon by more than 150 stegomyia mosquitoes (Lot 669). On Dec. 22, 1931, M. rhesus B10 was inoculated intracerebrally with 1 cc. of foreign serum (as a mild irritant) and was fed upon by the mosquitoes immediately after-* The studies and observations on which this paper is based were conducted with the support and under the auspices of the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation. 853 m r ~ m m u ~ u ~ ~ pa~npoad I uoil3atu I j [ J ( ~ #,~ p~npozd


Research Bisphenol A at Environmentally Relevant Doses Inhibits Adiponectin Release from Human Adipose Tissue


Summary: BACKGROUND: The incidence of obesity has risen dramatically over the last few decades. This epidemic may be affected by exposure to xenobiotic chemicals. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is detectable at nanomolar levels in human serum worldwide. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific hormone that increases insulin sensitivity and reduces tissue inflammation. Thus, any factor that suppresses adiponectin release could lead to insulin resistance and increased susceptibility to obesity-associated diseases. OBJECTIVES: In this study we aimed to compare a) the effects of low doses of BPA and estradiol (E2) on adiponectin secretion from human breast, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose explants and mature adipocytes, and b) expression of putative estrogen and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) in these tissues. METHODS: We determined adiponectin levels in conditioned media from adipose explants or adipocytes by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. We determined expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) ? and ?, G-protein–coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), and ERRs ?, ?, and ? by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: BPA at 0.1 and 1 nM doses suppressed adiponectin release from all adipose depots examined. Despite substantial variability among patients, BPA was as effective, and often more effective, than equimolar concentrations of E2. Adipose tissue expresses similar mRNA levels of ER?, ER?, and ERR?, and 20- to 30-fold lower levels of GPR30, ERR?, and ERR?. CONCLUSIONS: BPA at environmentally relevant doses inhibits the release of a key adipokine that protects humans from metabolic syndrome. The mechanism by which BPA suppresses adiponectin and the receptors involved remains to be determined.

Eric R. Hugo; Terry D. Br; Jessica G. Woo; Jean Loftus; J. Wesley Alex; Nira Ben-jonathan


DISPATCHES Increasing Incidence of


Summary: To determine whether the incidence of canine leishmaniasis has increased on Crete, Greece, we fitted infection models to serodiagnostic records of 8,848 dog samples for 1990–2006. Models predicted that seroprevalence has increased 2.4 % (95 % confidence interval 1.61%–3.51%) per year and that incidence has increased 2.2- to 3.8-fold over this 17-year period. Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a disease of humans and domestic dogs (the reservoir) transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. According to the World Health Organization (1), ZVL was first recorded on Crete in 1907, after which it featured prominently in medical literature as a serious public health problem. In Chania, Crete, the annual incidence in the 1930s was 50 cases/30,000 population (2), and 21 % of 1,115 dogs were positive for ZVL by the formol-gel serologic test; 30 % of those were symptomatic (1). After World War II, use of DDT against malaria vectors and focal destruction of Leishmania spp.–infected dogs is thought to have reduced ZVL on Crete (3). Sandflies were not found in villages systematically sprayed during 1946–1949 compared with unsprayed villages (4). During 1951–1975, only 33 alleged human ZVL cases were recorded on Crete (5), and reports of canine ZVL were scanty. In 1983 a serosurvey of 72 stray dogs in Chania identified only 1 infected dog (1). By the late 1980s, Phlebotomus neglectus, the putative vector of L. infantum on Crete (6), was abundant in stone walls inside and outside villages around Heraklion (7). During 1999–2004, P. neglectus was found in abundance

Zoonotic Visceral; Leishmaniasis On; Maria Antoniou; Vasiliki Christodoulou; Ioanna Ascoksilaki; Nikos Kanavakis; Andrew J. Sutton; Connor Carson; Orin Courtenay


Antimonial Resistance in Leishmania donovani Is Associated with Increased In Vivo Parasite Burden


Summary: Leishmania donovani is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Antimonials (SSG) have long been the first-line treatment against VL, but have now been replaced by miltefosine (MIL) in the Indian subcontinent due to the emergence of SSG-resistance. Our previous study hypothesised that SSG-resistant L. donovani might have increased in vivo survival skills which could affect the efficacy of other treatments such as MIL. The present study attempts to validate these hypotheses. Fourteen strains derived from Nepalese clinical isolates with documented SSG-susceptibility were infected in BALB/c mice to study their survival capacity in drug free conditions (non-treated mice) and in MIL-treated mice. SSG-resistant parasites caused a significant higher in vivo parasite load compared to SSG-sensitive parasites. However, this did not seem to affect the strains ’ response to MIL-treatment since parasites from both phenotypes responded equally well to in vivo MIL exposure. We conclude that there is a positive association between SSG-resistance and in vivo survival skills in our sample of L. donovani strains which could suggest a higher virulence of SSG-R strains compared to SSG-S strains. These greater in vivo survival skills of SSG-R parasites do not seem to directly affect their susceptibility to MIL. However, it cannot be excluded that repeated MIL exposure will elicit different adaptations in these SSG-R parasites with superior survival skills compared to the SSG-S parasites. Our results therefore highlight the need to closely monitor drug efficacy in

Manu Vanaerschot; Simonne De Doncker; Suman Rijal; Louis Maes; Jean-claude Dujardin; Saskia Decuypere


Supplemental Information Enteric Neurons and Systemic Signals Couple Nutritional and Reproductive Status with Intestinal Homeostasis


Summary: (A-C) A membrane-tagged GFP expressed from the pan-neuronal driver n-syb-Gal4 confirms the sparse innervation of the adult intestine. (A) Innervation of the oesophagus, crop and anterior midgut (proventriculus). (B) No n-syb-Gal4-positive neurites are apparent in the middle portion of the midgut. (C) In the hindgut, n-syb-Gal4 neurites innervate the pylorus and rectal ampulla. This sparse innervation was additionally confirmed by staining with a mouse anti-elav antibody (Figures 1I, S1G-I and data not shown). (We note that the rat anti-elav antibody labels visceral muscle nuclei in addition to neurons). (D-F) Glutamatergic innervation of the proventriculus (D), pylorus (E) and rectal ampulla (F), as revealed by expression of a membrane-tagged GFP from the OK371-Gal4 driver. (G-H) A subset of the peripheral neurons on the proventriculus (G) and hindgut sensory neurons (H, both labelled with antielav antibody) are cholinergic, as revealed by their expression of cha7.4-Gal4. In A to H, smooth muscles are visualized with phalloidin (in blue). Anterior (oral) is to the left in all images. (I) High magnification image of one of the hindgut-innervating cholinergic sensory neurons shown in H. The nucleus (labelled with DAPI) is elav-positive. (J) The cell bodies of neurons positive for odd-Gal4, which label the insulin-producing Ilp7 neurons and at least one other lineage (inset), are located in the posterior segments of the ventral ganglion. nc82 is used as a general neuropil marker. (K) odd-Gal4-positive neurons (arrowhead) send out long axons (visualized in green with a membrane-tagged GFP) which

Paola Cognigni; Andrew P. Bailey; Irene Miguel-aliaga; Figure S; Innervation Drosophila; Related Figure




Summary: Interest in the pathology of poliomyelitis has been focused largely on the central nervous system, and its visceral manifestations have been less extensively investigated. Among the latter, the changes in lymphoid tissue in acute pofiomyelitis have been relatively neglected. Observations made in a series of 50 autopsied cases of human po]iomyelitis! suggested that lymphoid lesions may be of unappreciated importance in this disease, and stimulated us to experiment with mice which had been treated with agents damaging to lymphoid tissues. • rOr~HOLOGIC OBS~RVAlXONS The 50 cases studied were clinically and pathologically typical of sporadic or epidemic poliomyelitis from the neuropathologic viewpoint. Some of the material has been reviewed by authorities at the National Institutes of Health. No atypical or doubtful cases were included. The microscopic slides were stained in a routine manner with hematoxyfin end eosin. In a small number of cases phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stains were made. A majority of the protocols stated that the mesenteric lymph nodes, solitary follicles, and Peyer's patches of the small and large intestines were prominent, enlarged, moist, succulent, and injected or congested. The spleen less commonly showed similar alterations, which were often obscured by congestion and softening of the red pulp. Microscopically 41 of the 50 cases (82 per cent) showed striking hyperplastic and inflammatory lesions of lymphoid tissue in the intestinal follicles, mesenteric nodes, and spleen. Sections of tonsils were not available. These findings were most frequent and well developed in children and when death followed a rather rapid course with development of bulbar paralysis.

C. Sommers; Joan C. Wilson; Frank W. Hartman

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