Summary: ??Analysis of gut contents of Echinometra lucunter and Arbacia punctulata revealed that A. punctulata consumes significantly greater amounts of animal material barnacles, mollusks, and bryozoans (more)
Summary: species on the nearby jetty. Determination of digestion coefficients of E. lucunter for three different diets showed that absorption of protein was more efficient from invertebrate (crab and squid) material than from algae or mixed food items. Absorption...
Summary: ??Desenvolvimento e ciclo reprodutivo da bolacha-do-mar Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) de São Sebastião, SP Resumo: Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento embrionário, larval e juvenil da (more)
Summary: 1 Reproductive biology of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) in two contrasting habitats of northern Tunisia (southeast Mediterranean) Running head : P. lividus reproduction in Northern.firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The reproductive strategies of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, was studied in the Bay
Summary: number 20, 15 pages, 5 figures, 5 tables, 1983.Surveys by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersibles have revealed the presence of large populations of black Centrostephanus, superficially resembling Diadema antillarum Philippi, along the shelf edge prominences off the east coast of Florida in depths of 48-80 meters. Typical habitats are aggregations of dead coral rubble, with seasonal growths of leafy red algae. Some aspects of the biology of these echinoids are described. We affirm that only a single species of the genus, Centrostephanus longispinus (Philippi), occurs in the Atlantic Ocean. As Fell (1975) and Serafy (1979) have shown, western Atlantic populations can be referred to the subspecies Centrostephanus longispinus rubicingulus H.L. Clark, which usually differs from the typical subspecies in possessing uniformly black spines rather than banded purple and yellowish white spines when fully grown. C besnardi Bernasconi from Isla Trindade, Brazil, is herein synonymized with C. longispinus rubicingulus. C. coronatus (Verrill) from California and the Galapagos Islands differs little from C. longispinus and the two species may yet prove to be subjective synonyms. There is some evidence to suggest that Gulf of California populations of C. coronatus differs from California populations at the subspecies level. OFFICIAL PUBLICATION DATE is handstamped in a limited number of initial copies and is recorded
Summary: ??Characteristics of bacterial clearance were investigated in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Primary clearance kinetics were determined for three bacteria, a marine (more)
Summary: ??The reproductive periodicity, recruitment and population studies of the intertidal Indo-Pacific echinoid, Arachnoides placenta (Linnaeus), were investigated from April 2001 to September 2002 at sites (more)
Summary: .68, n.1-2, p.17-23, jan./jun.2010 ISSN 0365-4508 THE SEA URCHIN ECHINOMETRA LUCUNTER (ECHINODERMATA found near the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter, suggesting a possible relationship between them of the sea urchin as a refuge by this goby. Key words: Micro-habitat. Spatial distribution. Reef fish
Summary: Emphasis upon publication as a means of "diffusing knowledge " was expressed by the first Secretary of the Smithsonian. In his formal plan for the Institution, Joseph Henry outlined a program that included the following statement: "It is proposed to publish a series of reports, giving an account of the new discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all branches of knowledge. " This theme of basic research has been adhered to through the years by thousands of titles issued in series publications under the Smithsonian imprint, commencing with Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge in 1848 and continuing with the following active series:
Smithsonian Contributions To Zoology; S. Dillon Ripley; David L. Pawson; John E. Miller
Summary: la présence ou l'absence d'orifices le long de cette suture revêtait un caractère facultatif. Ces orifices varient de taille chez un même individu, leur grand axe pouvant passer de 0.6 à 2 mm. et leur petit axe, de 0.3 à 0.5 mm. Des espaces de 0.3 à... apparences de pores suturaux) entre les pièces de leur sque- lette et variées sont les fonctions possibles de ces pores (ou de ces espaces non calcifiés). Ne trouve- t-on pas chez Cothurnocystis americana des pores suturaux simples (qui d'ailleurs ne...
Summary: and Tile Company on South Park road 0.3 mile southeast of junction with old National Turnpike, 1.1 miles southeast of Coral Ridge and about 3 miles west of Kentucky Turnpike, also 1.2 miles northwest of sum- mit of Button Mould Knob, about 15 miles south... and Tile Company on South Park road 0.3 mile southeast of junction with old National Turnpike, 1.1 miles southeast of Coral Ridge and about 3 miles west of Kentucky Turnpike, also 1.2 miles northwest of sum- mit of Button Mould Knob, about 15 miles south...
Moore, R. C.; Jeffords, Russell M.; Miller, T. H. 1968-01-01
Summary: Advances in digital data acquisition, analysis, and storage have revolutionized the work in many biological disciplines such as genomics, molecular phylogenetics, and structural biology, but have not yet found satisfactory acceptance in morphology. Improvements in non-invasive imaging and three-dimensional visualization techniques, however, permit high-throughput analyses also of whole biological specimens, including museum material. These developments pave the way towards a digital era in morphology. Using sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), we provide examples illustrating the power of these techniques. However, remote visualization, the creation of a specialized database, and the implementation of standardized, world-wide accepted data deposition practices prior to publication are essential to cope with the foreseeable exponential increase in digital morphological data.
Er Ziegler; Malte Ogurreck; Thomas Steinke; Felix Beckmann; Steffen Prohaska; Andreas Ziegler
Summary: and format follow that of the Bulletin of Marine Science. Figure 1. Location of West Flower Garden Bank. positively identified as a flourishing coral reef (Pulley, 1963). Since that time, the relative inaccessibility of the reef to all but commercial... much of the collecting discussed above was done on or in the vicinity of coral reefs, information on Gulf reefs was notably deficient. Ives (1890) reported on the fauna of the reefs near Vera Cruz. Moore (1958) listed field observations on the fauna...
Summary: the ~hoyyet' of M~e t Stt o Hedgpeth 1953, Hildebrand 1954, Harper 1970, Defenbaugh 1976, Pequegnat 1983, Britton and Norton 1989). Whitten et al ( 1950) examined the jetties . Laguna Madre with its associated bays was surveyed by Simmons ( 1957), Breuer...~te t 1 u(l( (3) ~st ect d ul (4) A. tlc 1 tus d~(i tus Agassiz, A. 1869:307 (2); Boone 1928:5 ( I); Britton & Morton 1989:351 (I); Caso 1943:22 (I), 1953:221 (I), 1961:27 (I); Cerame-Vivas & Gray 1966:263 (I); Clark, H. L. 1898a:5 (I), 1901a:236 (I...
Summary: populations of Aeal1lhaster, which might follow on construction of a sea-level Central American canal feed- ing, 20% resting, and 10% traveling. There was no clear-cut diurnal behavior, and no tendency of the eastern tropical Pacific representatives of the genus. Furthermore, the possible construction of a Central
Summary: , planktotrophic larvae are restricted to two evolutionarily disparate groups largely restricted to coral reefs that holothuroids survived the end Permian extinction more successfully than other echinoderms. Like many other
Summary: popularly known as starfish or sea stars, are ecologically important and diverse members of marine ecosystems in all of the worlds oceans. We present a comprehensive overview of diversity and phylogeny as they have figured into the evolution of the Asteroidea from Paleozoic to the living fauna. Living post-Paleozoic asteroids, the Neoasteroidea, are morphologically separate from those in the Paleozoic. Early Paleozoic asteroid faunas were diverse and displayed morphology that foreshadowed later living taxa. Preservation presents significant difficulties, but fossil occurrence and current accounts suggests a diverse Paleozoic fauna, which underwent extinction around the Permian-Triassic interval was followed by re-diversification of at least one surviving lineage. Ongoing phylogenetic classification debates include the status of the Paxillosida and the Concentricycloidea. Fossil and molecular evidence has been and continues to be part of the ongoing evolution of asteroid phylogenetic research. The modern lineages of asteroids include the Valvatacea, the Forcipulatacea, the Spinlosida, and the Velatida. We present an overview of diversity in these taxa, as well as brief notes on broader significance, ecology, and functional morphology of each. Although much asteroid taxonomy is stable, many new taxa remain to be discovered with many new species currently awaiting description. The Goniasteridae is currently one of the most diverse families within the Asteroidea. New data from molecular phylogenetics and the advent of global biodiversity databases, such as the World Asteroidea Database
Summary: features of the arms, calyx, and column. Thus, 21 characters were used for cladids and the flexible; 27 Aethocrinea Cladida ,tinerata Disparida Caryocystites Aethocrinus Perittocrinus Tetracionocrinus Brechmocrinus Elpasocrinus Palaeocrinus Archaetaxocrinus... (16 genera). The analysis included 18 characters (Appendix B, p. 34; basal concavity, arm number, and arm habit are constant) with a total of 54 character states. The 50-percent majority-rule tree is from 13 equally parsimonious trees of length 56...
Summary: The Ophiuroidea collected from mud volcanoes and adjacent bathyal environments from the Gulf of Cadiz are reviewed. Thirteen species from six familiesOphiacanthidae, Ophiactidae, Amphiuridae, Amphilepididae, Ophiuridae and Ophiolepididaewere identified. A direct relationship to the chemosynthetic assemblages has not been established as the ophiuroids found in the mud volcanoes do not appear to have novel morphological adaptations and also occur in non-reducing environments. The ophiuroid fauna from the Gulf of Cadiz differs from other cold seep regions not only by the high species richness but also because members of Amphiuridae are dominant both in number of species and abundance. One species previously unknown, Ophiopristis gadensis sp. nov., (Ophiacanthidae) was collected from a dead cold-water coral thicket at the flank of a mud volcano and differs from its congeners in the type of disk spines which are more rugose and not smooth as in most of the other species, the presence of the thickened integument in larger specimens and the distinct separation between the oral papillae and the second oral tentacle scales. Key words: mud volcanoes, reducing environments, macrofauna, biodiversity
Clara F. Rodrigues; Gordon L. J. Paterson; Andrew Cabrinovic; Marina R. Cunha
Summary: Phyllophorus (Phyllophorus) maculatus new species is described from a depth of 2245 meters near the western edge of the Yellow Sea. The body is cylindrical, with body wall ossicles present only in the anal region. Ossicles are four-pillared tables with low spires and indented disc margin. A revised key to the eleven phyllophorine (Family Phyllophoridae, Subfamily Phyllophorinae) species now known from China is presented.
Summary: Echinodermata (stekelhuidigen) Echinodermata 06.12 III p 03 P Hemichordata (zakpijpen en salpen) en Urochordata (manteldieren) Hemichordata (sea-squirts and salps) and Urochordata 06.12 III q 03 Q Vertebrata (gewervelden
Summary: . Grupos lofoforados: Bryozoa, Brachiopoda. Os deuterostÃ?mios: Filos Echinodermata, Hemichordata e Chordata moluscos bivalves. 3) Deuterostomia: Echinodermata e Hemichordata 3.1 anÃ¡lise comparativa dos modelos de
Summary: and Northeastern Atlantic and a molecular clock for the diversification of the Holothuriidae (Echinodermata: Phylogeny rrnL Cox1 mtDNA Holothuria Roweothuria Holothuriidae Echinodermata a b s t r a c t This work
Summary: Fatty acid composition Algal diets Microencapsulated diet Larval growth and development Fatty acid (FA. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SAFA), short and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) differed, myristic and palmitic acids, and short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as, linoleic, linolenic
Summary: During the last decades, R/V Meteor and R/V Polarstern deep-sea investigations in the south Atlantic and neighbouring Southern Ocean collected new samples of stalked crinoids belonging to the families Bathycrinidae, Phrynocrinidae and Hyocrinidae which are herein described. The species found are Bathycrinus australis A.H. Clark, 1907b (the most abundant), Dumetocrinus aff. antarcticus (Bather, 1908), Hyocrinus bethellianus Thomson, 1876, Feracrinus heinzelleri new species, and Porphyrocrinus cf. incrassatus (Gislén, 1933). As only stalk fragments of bathycrinids were frequently collected, a distinction between the two Atlantic species B. australis and B. aldrichianus is proposed using characters of columnal articulations. A few specimens attributed to Porphyrocrinus cf. incrassatus, Hyocrinus bethellianus and Hyocrinus sp. collected by the N/O Jean Charcot on the Walvis Ridge are also described, plus a new specimen of Porphyrocrinus incrassatus collected in the central mid-Atlantic. Biogeography and close affinities between species in the genera Bathycrinus and Porphyrocrinus suggest an Antarctic origin of some stalked crinoids among the north Atlantic deep-sea fauna. The presence of B. australis in both the Angola and Cape basins suggests that the Walvis Ridge is not a bio-geographical barrier for this relatively eurybathic species, which can attach to hard substrates as well as anchor in sediment. The genus Dumetocrinus seems to be an example of colonization of the west Antarctic platform from deeper environment where its ancestor lived.
Marc Eléaume; Jens-michael Bohn; Michel Roux; Nadia Améziane
Summary: Crustacea e Mollusca. Unidade 4: Organismos planctÃ´nicos: utilizados como alimento na aquacultura, em (Cirripedia), Mollusca, Urochordata (Ascidiacea), Ectoprocta (Bryozoa) e Echinodermata. Unidade 5: Fauna de
Summary: Reassessment of the classification of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata), based on morphological characters. I. General character evaluation and delineation of the families Ophiomyxidae and Ophiacanthidae
Summary: on the northwestern Gulf of Yiexico shelf during 1974 are listed and described A comparison is made of echinoderms at Stetson Bank~ a rock outcrop, with those of the nearby living coral reefs, the East and fest Flower Gardens. The study sites are briefly described... Flower Garden are the northernmost flourishing coral reefs found in the Gulf of Mexico (Edward@ 1971). All evidence to date indicates that the Flower Gardens harbour the only thriving coral reefs among these shelf edge banks Edwards (1971) separates...
Summary: Members of the calbindin subfamily serve as markers of subpopulations of neurons within the vertebrate nervous system. Although markers of these proteins are widely available and used, their application to invertebrate nervous systems has been very limited. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of members of the calbindin subfamily in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867). Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against rat calbindin 1, parvalbumin, and calbindin 2, showed that these antibodies labeled cells and fibers within the nervous system of H. glaberrima. Most of the cells and fibers were co-labeled with the neural-specific marker RN1, showing their neural specificity. These were distributed throughout all of the nervous structures, including the connective tissue plexi of the body wall and podia. Bioinformatics analyses of the possible antigen recognized by these markers showed that a calbindin 2-like protein present in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, corresponded to the calbindin-D32k previously identified in other invertebrates. Western blots with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin showed that these markers recognized an antigen of approximately 32 kDa in homogenates of radial nerve cords of H. glaberrima and Lytechinus variegatus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin was obtained to a fragment of calbindin-D32k of H. glaberrima. Our findings suggest that calbindin-D32k is present in invertebrates and its sequence is more similar to the vertebrate calbindin 2 than to calbindin 1. Thus, characterization of calbindin-D32k in echinoderms provides an important view of the evolution of this protein family and represents a valuable marker to study the nervous system of invertebrates.
Carlos A. Díaz-balzac; Maríai. Lázaro-peña; Enrique M. García-rivera; Carlos I. González; José E. García-arrarás
Summary: ??Sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from shallow-water habitats worldwide are known to influence local biodiversity and community structure through their feeding behaviours. Deep-sea (> 200 m) (more)
Summary: ??Lembranchement Hemichordata regroupe les classes Enteropneusta et Pterobranchia. Hemichordata constitue, avec lembranchement Echinodermata, le groupe-frère des chordés. Les entéropneustes sont des organismes vermiformes solitaires qui (more)
Summary: and dissimilarities. In addition, I determined if a specific group of invertebrates, Asteroids (Echinodermata), were Erhardt and Chris Romsos for providing space and additional tools to successfully complete invertebrate
Summary: Huviatilis ala, arg, gly, glu, pro Simpson et al. , 1959 Various invertebrates in the phyla: Coelenterate, Arthropoda, Molluscs, Echinodermata ala, arg, asp, glu, gly. tau Lynch and Wood, 1966 H ~tt 1 ala, arg, glu, gly, tau Schoffeniels, 1967...
Summary: ://biology.st-andrews.ac.uk #12;Phylum Sub phylum Super class Class Body Plan: Â· Bilaterally symmetrical, but appearing 5 rayed with the mesoderm Â· Complex water vascular system Class: Echinoidea Order: Cidaroida Order: Echinothuroida Order: Neolampadoida Order: Holasteroida Class: Holothuroidea Order: Dendrochirotida Order: Dactylochirotida Order
Summary: . ISSN: 0737-4038 Evolution of Sea Urchin Retroviral-Like (SURL) Elements: Evidence from 40 Echinoid conducted a phylogenetic survey of sea urchin retroviral-like (SURL) retrotransposable elements in 33 species of the class Echinoidea (sea urchins, sand dollars, and heart urchins). A 263-bp fragment from
Summary: . Zeitschr., v. 24, p. 76-90. (4) WAAGEN, WILLIAM, 1885, Salt Range Fossils. v. 1. Productus Limestone Fossils, Pt. 5, Bryozoa-Annelida- Echinodermata: Palaeontologia Indica, ser. 13, v. 1, p. 771-834, pl. 87-96. CURT TEICHERT Paleontological Institute.... Zeitschr., v. 24, p. 76-90. (4) WAAGEN, WILLIAM, 1885, Salt Range Fossils. v. 1. Productus Limestone Fossils, Pt. 5, Bryozoa-Annelida- Echinodermata: Palaeontologia Indica, ser. 13, v. 1, p. 771-834, pl. 87-96. CURT TEICHERT Paleontological Institute...
Rhodes, F. H. T.; Hä ntzschel, W.; Mü ller, K. H.; Fisher, D. W.; Teichert, C. 1966-07-11
Summary: on any fossil crinoid. Three lightly pyritized, flattened tube feet are preserved in a single interray papillae, similar to living cri- noids. Echinodermata, Crinoidea, soft-tissue preservation, pyritization clear evidence of pyritized tube feet in the Hunsruck Slate ophiuroid Bundenbachia beneckei Sturtz 1886
Summary: .mapress.com/zootaxa/ A new viviparous species of asterinid (Echinodermata, Asteroidea, Asterinidae) and a new genus, Nova Scotia, Canada email:email@example.com Abstract This paper describes a new species of viviparous the concept of a pan-tropical assemblage of species for which a new genus, Cryptasterina, is created. All
Summary: An Ancient Repeat Sequence in the ATP Synthase b-Subunit Gene of Forcipulate Sea Stars David W is described from two nonadjacent introns of the ATP synthase b-subunit gene in sea stars of the order Forcipulatida (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). The repeat is present in both introns of all forcipulate sea stars
Summary: , Hong Kong, 1998, pp 171-188. #12;172 symmetric species (e.g., Echinodermata), almost all living TÃ¼bingen, Germany ABSTRACT Human faces are approximately bilaterally symmetric. We study the ability of different people can be very similar to each other compared to objects in other object classes. Human
Summary: activation and apoptosis. Despite conservation of Bcl-2, Apaf-1, and caspases in invertebrate phyla, the existence of the mito- chondrial pathway in any invertebrate is, at best, controversial. Here we show invertebrate deuter- ostomes (phylum Echinodermata). The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, characterized
Summary: Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata. Chordata is composed of three subphyla, Verte- brata, Cephalochordata, Urochordata, Hemichordata, and Echi- nodermata. Hemichordates include two distinct classes, the en- teropneust-like ancestor (reviewed in refs. 9 and 10) or from calcichordates (14). The phylum Hemichordata consists
Summary: We describe "universal " DNA primers for polymer-ase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidasesubunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla:Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Pla-tyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers gener-ate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.
M. Black; W. Hoeh; R. Lutz; R Vrijenhoek 1994-01-01
Summary: with Notes on the ^oroaster idae Echinodermata: Asteroidea) A SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ZOOLOGY 1970 NUMBER 64SERIAL PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION The emphasis upon publications as a means of diffusing knowledge was expressed by the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. In his formal plan for the Institution, Joseph Henry articulated a program that included the following statement: "It is proposed to publish a series of reports, giving an account of the new discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all branches of knowledge not strictly professional. " This keynote of basic research has been adhered to over the years in the issuance of thousands of titles in serial publications under the Smithsonian imprint, commencing with Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge in 1848 and continuing with the following active series:
Maureen E. Down; Smithsonian Contributions To Zoology; S. Dillon Ripley; Maureen E. Downey
Summary: It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearlypublished reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 19902009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions,
Miguel Costa Leal; João Puga; João Serôdio; Newton C. M. Gomes; Ricardo Calado
Summary: Achieving a better comprehension of the evolution of species has always been an important matter for evolutionary biologists. The deuterostome phylogeny has been described for many years, and three phyla are distinguishable: Echinodermata (including sea stars, sea urchins, etc ), Hemichordata (including acorn worms and pterobranchs), and Chordata (including urochordates, cephalochordates and extant vertebrates). Inside the Chordata phylum, the position of vertebrate species is quite unanimously accepted. Nonetheless, the position of urochordates in regard with vertebrates is still the subject of debate, and has even been suggested by some authors to be a separate phylum from cephalochordates and vertebrates. It was also the case for agnathans species myxines and hagfish for which phylogenetic evidence was recently given for a controversial monophyly. This raises the following question: which one of the cephalochordata or urochordata is the sister group of vertebrates and what are their relationships? In the present work, we analyzed 82 protein families presenting homologs between urochordata and other deuterostomes and focused on two points: 1) testing accurately the position of urochordata and cephalochordata phyla in regard with vertebrates as well as chordates monophyly, 2) performing an estimation of the rate of gene loss in the Ciona intestinalis genome. We showed that the urochordate phyla is the vertebrate sister group and that gene loss played a major role in structuring the urochordate genome.
Summary: Abstract. Cryptasterina hystera has a highly derived life history with intragonadal development and juveniles that emerge from the parents reproductive tract. The gonads are ovotestes with developing eggs separated from sperm by follicle cells. C. hystera has typical echinosperm that must enter the gonoduct of conspecifics to achieve fertilization. During oogenesis, an initial period of yolk accumulation is followed by hypertrophic lipid deposition, the major contributor to the increase in egg size. 1-Methyladenine induces egg maturation and ovulation, but the spawning component of the hormonal cascade is suppressed. This is the major alteration in reproduction associated with evolution of viviparity in C. hystera. The switch to viviparity was not accompanied by major change in gonad structure, indicating there were few or no anatomical constraints for evolution of a marsupial function for the gonad. Despite their intragonadal habitat, the brachiolaria are equipped for a planktonic life, swimming in gonadal fluid. During the gastrula stage, lipid provisions are released into the blastocoel where they are stored for juvenile development. The eggs of C. hystera have light and dark cytoplasmic regions that mark animalvegetal polarity. The dark pigment provided a marker to follow the fate of vegetal cells. Live birth is rare in the Echinodermata and the incidence of this form of brooding in the phylum is reviewed.
Summary: Ansrnecr. Procedures for revealing the three-dimensional arrangement of calcareous sclerites, spicules, or ossicles embedded within connective tissue in formalin fixed invertebrates are described. Spicules are stained with alizarin red S following maceration of preserved animals or colonies with either trnrsin or KOH solutions. Connective tissue is stained with alcian blue in different samples prior to maceration. Stained animals or colonies are cleared in glycerin. This method for revealing spicular structure and arrangement and the gross morphology of connective tissues offers several advantages over either scanning electron microscopy or reconstruction from serial sections. Invertebrates from many phyla, including Porifera, Cnidaria, and Echinodermata. have embedded in their connective tissues small calcareous or siliceous structures known variously as spicules, sclerites, or ossicles. (For ease of discussion in this paper, we refer to all such structures as spicules.) The architecture of skeletons composed of large, regularly arranged spicules can be studied by dissection (t.9., Eylers 1976). Scanning electron microscopy can resolve the arrangement of small, densely packed spicules (t.g., Muzik and