1821 K
42 pp.
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TitleResearch Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum [Special Technical Report]: Further Aspects of the Theory of the Maser.
Author(s)Shimoda, K.; Wang, T. C.; Townes, C. H.
Publication DateMarch 01, 1956
Report NumberNP-5899
Unique IdentifierACC0432
Other NumbersCU-1-56-SC-64630 Phys; OSTI ID: 4362275
Research OrgColumbia University, New York. Columbia Radiation Laboratory
Contract NoDA-36-039-SC-64630
Sponsoring OrgDepartment of Army (Signal Corps); Department of Navy (Office of Navel Research); Department of Air Force (Air Research and Development Command)
Other InformationDA Project No. 3-99-10-022; SC Project No. 102B
SubjectPhysics; Ammonia; Beams; Configuration; Dipoles; Electromagnetic Fields; Magnetic Moments; Masers; Microwaves; Molecules; Numericals; Planning; Radiation Detectors; Spectra; Spectral Shift; Spectrometers
KeywordsCavity Resonators; Microwave Oscillators; Microwave Spectrometers
Related Web PagesCharles Townes - the Maser and the Laser
AbstractThe theory of the molecular transitions which are induced by the microwave field in a maser and the effects of various design parameters are examined in detail. It is shown that the theoretical minimum detectable beam intensity when the maser is used as a spectrometer for the 3-3 line of ammonia is about 10{sup 9} molecules/sec under typical experimental conditions. Various systematic frequency shifts and random frequency fluctuations of the maser oscillator are discussed and evaluated. The most prominent of the former are the "frequency-pulling" effect which arises from detuning of the cavity and the Doppler shift due to the asymmetrical coupling of the beam with the two travelling wave components of the standing waves which are set up in the cavity. These two effects may produce fractional shifts as large as one part in 10{sup 9}. If adequate precautions are taken, however, they can be reduced to one part in 10{sup 10} or possibly less. The random fluctuations are shown to be of the order of one part in 10{sup 13} under typical operating conditions. For molecular beams in which the electric-dipole transition is used the TM{sub 010} mode is usually the most suitable for the maser which atomic beams in which magnetic transitions are utilized, the TE{sub 011} mode is to be preferred.
1821 K
42 pp.
View Document 

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