Patents – Alan G. MacDiarmid
(1980 - 1992)

MacDiarmid Page · Resources with Additional Information · Patents (1994 - 2012)


US 4,204,216 ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING DOPED POLYACETYLENE FILM EXHIBITING N-TYPE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AND METHOD OF PREPARING SAME – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al.; May 20, 1980
Electrically conducting organic polymeric film material exhibiting a preselected room temperature n-type electrical conductivity ranging from that characteristic of semiconductor behavior to that characteristic of metallic behavior, is prepared by controlled electron donor doping of a polycrystalline film of polyacetylene with a metal dopant whose Pauling electronegativity value is no greater than 1.6. Preferred metal dopants are the alkali metals. The procedure may be employed in preparing polyacetylene film with a p-n junction formed by two adjacent portions of the film respectively provided with p-type and n-type electrical conductivities.

US 4,222,903 P-TYPE ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING DOPED POLYACETYLENE FILM AND METHOD OF PREPARING SAME – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al; September 16, 1980
Electrically conducting organic polymeric material having a preselected room temperature p-type electrical conductivity which may vary over the entire range characteristic of semiconductor behavior and into the range characteristic of metallic behavior, is prepared by controlled chemical doping of polyacetylene in the form of a polycrystalline film. Exceptionally high room temperature p-type electrical conductivity within the range of from about 0.1 to of the order of 10.sup.3 ohm.sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 is achieved with several electron acceptor dopants, including bromine, iodine, iodine chloride, iodine bromide and arsenic pentafluoride.

US 4,321,114 ELECTROCHEMICAL DOPING OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al.; March 23, 1982
Conjugated polymers are doped with dopant ions to a preselected room temperature electrical conductivity ranging from that characteristic of semiconductor behavior to that characteristic of metallic behavior, by means of an electrochemical procedure wherein the polymer is employed as one or both of the electrodes of an electrolytic cell, including as the electrolyte a compound which is ionizable into the dopant ions. Upon electrolysis of the electrolyte, the polymer, if used as the anode, becomes doped with anionic dopant ions to a p-type material; or if used as the cathode, becomes doped with cationic dopant ions to an n-type material. The above-described electrochemical doping procedure finds particularly useful application in the charging of novel secondary batteries in which a doped conjugated polymer is employed as one or both of the electrodes. Such secondary batteries, in their charged state, comprise a metal whose Pauling electronegativity value is no greater than 1.6, or a conjugated polymer doped with dopant cations of said metal, as the anode-active material; a conjugated polymer doped with dopant anions as the cathode-active material; and a compound which is ionizable into the dopant ions as the electrolyte. In the initial discharged state of such secondary batteries, the polymer is in undoped form, and charging of the battery is effected by electrochemical doping of the polymer with the dopant ions of the electrolyte.

US 4,442,187 BATTERIES HAVING CONJUGATED POLYMER ELECTRODES – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al.; April 10, 1984
Conjugated polymers are doped with ionic dopant species to a preselected room temperature electrical conductivity ranging from that characteristic of semiconductor behavior to that characteristic of metallic behavior, by means of reversible electrochemical doping procedures. The doping procedures are carried out in an electrochemical cell wherein the polymer to be doped is employed as one or both of the electrodes, and the electrolyte is a compound which is ionizable into the ionic dopant species. Upon operation of the cell, the polymer, if used as the anode, becomes doped with an anionic dopant species to a p-type material; or if used as the cathode, becomes doped with a cationic dopant species to an n-type material. The electrochemical doping reactions and their reverse electrochemical undoping reactions are utilized as the charging and discharging mechanisms of novel lightweight secondary batteries which employ doped or dopable conjugated polymers as one or both of their electrodes.

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US 4,728,589 REVERSIBLE ELECTROCHEMICAL DOPING OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS AND SECONDARY BATTERIES BASED THEREON – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al.; March 1, 1988
A secondary battery comprises at least one electrode having as an active materials a conjugated polymer, the polymer being doped to an electrically conducting state. Particularly, the battery may comprise the polymer as a cathode and a lithium anode.

US 4,801,512 REVERSIBLE ELECTROCHEMICAL DOPING OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS AND SECONDARY BATTERIES BASED THEREON – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al.; January 31, 1989
Conjugated polymers are doped with ionic dopant species to a preselected room temperature electrical conductivity ranging from that characteristic of semiconductor behavior to that characteristic of metallic behavior, by means of reversible electrochemical doping procedures. The doping procedures are carried out in an electrochemical cell wherein the polymer to be doped is employed as one or both of the electrodes, and the electrolyte is a compound which is ionizable into the ionic dopant species to a p-type material; or if used as the cathode, becomes doped with a cationic dopant species to an n-type material.

US 4,820,595 ELECTROCHEMISTRY EMPLOYING POLYANILINE – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al.; April 11, 1989
Electrochemical cells including secondary batteries and fuel cells are provided employing polyanilines having improved reversibility, stability and electrochemical properties. In accordance with a preferred embodiment polyaniline is employed as a cathode active polymer in a secondary battery at a pH between about 1 and 11. In accordance with other embodiment, fuel cells employing polyaniline are provided as are batteries wherein polyanilines are used as anodes.

US 4,940,640 HIGH CAPACITY POLYANILINE ELECTRODES – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; July 10, 1990
Electrochemical electrodes are provided having improved capacity and efficiency. In accordance with preferred embodiments polyaniline species wherein oxidation and hydrogenation levels are carefully controlled are formulated into such electrodes and into batteries and fuel cells.

US 5,023,149 ELECTROCHEMISTRY EMPLOYING POLYANILINE – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al.; June 11, 1991 
Electrochemical cells including secondary batteries and fuel cells are provided employing polyanilines having improved reversibility, stability and electrochemical properties. In accordance with a preferred embodiment polyaniline is employed as a cathode active polymer in a secondary battery at a pH between about 1 and 11. In accordance with nother embodiments, fuel cells employing polyaniline are provided as are batteries wherein polyanilines are used as anodes.

US 5,147,913 CROSS-LINKED POLYMERS DERIVED FROM POLYANILINE AND GELS COMPRISING THE SAME – MacDiarmid, Alan G.; et. al.; September 15, 1992
Cross-linked polymer networks derived from polyaniline and polyaniline derivatives are provided, as well as preparative methods therefor. Also provided are gels comprising cross-linked polymer and a liquid. The cross-linked polymers preferably are prepared by providing a substantially linear polymer which comprises polyaniline and/or a polyaniline derivative, admixing the linear polymer with a liquid in which the cross-linked polymer is substantially insoluble, and cross-linking the polymer through agitation. The cross-linked polymers of the invention can be employed to fabricate shaped articles which reversibly expand and contract in either an isotropic or anisotropic fashion and may find use in gas and/or liquid separations.


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