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Patents – Ernest Orlando Lawrence
US 2,785,311 LOW VOLTAGE ION SOURCE – Lawrence, E. O.; Mar 12, 1957 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
An improved generator is described for the production of a very high current ion beam. Electrons emitted from a cathode are directed by a magnetic field into a region of an arc discharge, where they bombard gas molecules. Ions formed in the region are drawn out by means of several negatively charged electrodes. The electrodes are curved and nested in parallel relationship and have apertures aligned to form a narrow high current ion beam from the several low current beams passing through electrodes. (auth)
US 2,789,229 ION PRODUCING MECHANISM – Lawrence, E. O.; Apr 16, 1957 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
An ion producing mechanism and, in particular, the method of control of the temperature of the producing method of control of the temperature of the producing means are described. The invention resides in the broad concept of maintaining the temperature of the ionization chamber at a point which is optimum to the stabilization of the ionization. (auth)
US 2,819,401 APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING THE POSITION OF AN ION BEAM IN A CALUTRON – Lawrence, E. O.; Jan 7, 1958 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
This patent relates to improvements in electric discharge devices of the calutron type for separation of the isotopes of an element from the freely occurring composition. The improvement constitutes means for the continuous control of the path of an ion beam to obtain maximum reception in a receiver compartment. Withdrawal of the ions from the source is accomplished by an accelerator electrode placed at a positive potential with respect to the receiver. The ions are projected through a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion towards a receiver. In order to obtain a signal representative of the magnitude of ions received from a particular ion-beam in its compartment, an electrode is disposed in the compartment. The signal from the compartment electrode controls the voltage of the accelerating electrode through appropriate circuitry to maintain the path of the particular ion beam optimum for maximum ion current in the compartment.
US 2,847,576 CALUTRON SYSTEM – Lawrence, E. O.; Aug 12, 1958 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A calutron system capable of functioning with only a portion of the separation tanks in the system operating is described. The invention is a calutron system comprising a closed series of alternated tanks and electromagnets having a mid-yoke connecting intermediate positions of the series, dividing the series into two portions, and thereby providing a closed magnetic path through either of the portions.
US 2,852,689 ION PRODUCING MECHANISM – Lawrence, E. O.; Sep 16, 1958 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
Improvements are presented in calutron devices and, more specifically, deals with an improved mounting arrangement for the ion source of the calutron. An important feature of the invention resides in a plurality of insulators so mounted as to be accessible from the exterior of the calutron tank and supporting at their inner ends the ion source. These insulators are arranged in mutually parallel relation and also parallel to the flux of the magnetic field, whereby the strain of the supporting elements is reduced to a minimum. In addition the support assembly is secured to a removable wall portion of the task to facilitate withdrawal and examination of the ion producing mechanism.
US 2,852,690 CALUTRONS – Lawrence, E. O.; Sep 16, 1958 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
This patent relates to calutron devices and has for its object the arrangement of several independent ion separating mechanisms, i.e., ion source and ion receiver, within a single vacuum tank to economize on space and reduce the duplication of magnetic structure. In each of the two described embodiments the ion separating mechanisms are removably supported within the tank. In addition, the magnetic field is produced in the tank by coaxial coils supported outside the tank and magnetic structure is arranged to confine and provide a uniform field within the tank.
US 2,871,364 CALUTRONS – Lawrence, E. O.; Jan 27, 1959 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
Isotope separating devices known as calutrons are discussed, and a calutron having a number of transmitter units arranged to transmit a corresponding plurality of ion beams to a plurality of receiver units to increase the degree of efficiency in the use of the available evacuated tank space is presented. Various arrangements of transmitter and receiver units are attached to a removable section of the tank wall. In addition, a panel of the wall section may be removed to withdraw a particular unit without disturbing the adjustment and position of the unit with respect io its mating unit.
US 2,882,407 CALUTRON – Lawrence, E. O. ; Brobeck, W. M.; Apr 14, 1959 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
An ion source is described for a calutron especially designed to improve the uniformity of charge vapor flow when the vapor encounters the arc. The inventive feature of the source consists of a specific source block construction wherein heater means prevents condensation from taking place within the block, and a separate vapor generator is supported on the wall of the block by a hollow thimble. The thimble communicates with a bore cavity in the block and the vapor flows therethrough into the cavity and uniformly out a slot along the length of the cavity where the arc discharge is located.
US 2,882,409 DUAL HEATED ION SOURCE STRUCTURE HAVING ARC SHIFTING MEANS – Lawrence, E. O.; Apr 14, 1959 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
An ion source is presented for calutrons, particularly an electrode arrangement for the ion generator of a calutron ion source. The ion source arc chamber is heated and an exit opening with thermally conductive plates defines the margins of the opening. These plates are electrically insulated from the body of the ion source and are connected to a suitable source of voltage to serve as electrodes for shaping the ion beam egressing from the arc chamber.
US 2,888,566 ION SOURCE SLIT CLEANER FOR CALUTRON – Lawrence, E. O.; May 26, 1959 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A mechanical scraper for cleaning calutron ion source slits is described. (T.R.H.)
US 2,933,442 ELECTRONUCLEAR REACTOR – Lawrence, E. O.; McMillan, E. M.; Alvarez, L. W.; Apr 19, 1960 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
An electronuclear reactor is described in which a very high-energy particle accelerator is employed with appropriate target structure to produce an artificially produced material in commercial quantities by nuclear transformations. The principal novelty resides in the combination of an accelerator with a target for converting the accelerator beam to copious quantities of low-energy neutrons for absorption in a lattice of fertile material and moderator. The fertile material of the lattice is converted by neutron absorption reactions to an artificially produced material, e.g., plutonium, where depleted uranium is utilized as the fertile material.
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