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Patents – Ernest Orlando Lawrence
US 2,530,169 ELECTRONIC REGULATOR – Lawrence, E. O.; Schmidt, F. H.; Waithman, V. B.; Nov 14, 1950 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)Top
The patent describes an electronic regulator and protector circuit for a device having a filamentary cathode and a bombardment-heated cathode to automatically extinguish an arc formed between the two cathodes and simultaneously regulate the arc current between the bombardment-heated cathode and an arc block.
US 2,709,222 METHODS OF AND APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING MATERIALS – Lawrence, E. O.; May 24, 1955 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
The design and method of operation are described for a device known as the calutron useful in effecting macro-scale separation or enrichment of isotopes by electromagnetic means. Among other things the patent describes apparatus and a method of operation whereby it is possible to operate with ion beam currents many thousands of times greater than in any mass spectrograph. Space charge effects and the spreading of particle velocities are overcome by operating in a critical pressure range of about 10-4 to 10-5 mm. of mercury, and maintaining the potential of the beam with respect to the walls at a low value.
US 2,713,641 CALUTRON STRUCTURE – Lawrence, E. O.; Wright, B. T.; Jul 19, 1955 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
An improved method is presented for adjusting the relationship between the accelerating electrode and the exit slit in the ion source in an electromagnetic type of isotope separating apparatus. The operation of a calutron can be improved by having the accelerating electrode offset laterally slightly with respect to the exit slit in the ion source. The adjustment is made in the amount of offset by bodily rotating the ion source itself on trunnions. This adjustment is accomplished by means of push rods which cause the ion source to be tilted so that the exit end is accurately adjusted. This eliminates the need for making adjustments in the electrodes themselves so that the gap setting will not be disturbed, and the necessity of adjusting a component at a high potential is obviated since the ion source units are grounded.
US 2,714,664 CALUTRONS – Lawrence, E. O.; Aug 2, 1995 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
The patent relates to a calutron comprising a plurality of ion sources arranged to transmit a corresponding plurality of ion beams in an evacuated tank space so disposed in a substantially regular pattern in the tank and arranged to transmit a corresponding plurality of substantially regularly disposed ion beams within the evacuated tank space.
US 2,715,682 ION SOURCE FOR CALUTRONS – Lawrence, E. O.; Aug 16, 1955 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
An ion source for a calutron has been modified so that the total number o electrical leads is reduced. This is accomplished by providing an E shaped cathode comprised of a back portion with three legs projecting therefrom. The back portion of the cathode is located adjacent an arc block comprised of individual arc chambers in such a manner that electrons are emitted into the various chambers from different sections of the back portion of the E shaped cathode. current is supplied to each of the aforesaid legs of the cathode for heating the back portion to an electron emitting temperature and control means are connected to the three legs so that the electron emission from each section of the back portion may be regulated. In this manner one cathode is made to serve a plurality of arc chambers. (auth)
US 2,721,272 CALUTRONS – Lawrence, E. O.; Oct 18, 1955 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
The track assembly of a calutron is composed of a plurality of substantially fluid-type tanks, magnetic field structure associated with these tanks and arranged to set up a magnetic field therethrough, a header associated with the tanks together with valve means for selectively connecting the tanks to the header, means for evacuating the header, a plurality of transmitters disposed in the tanks for transmitting a plurality of ion beams through the magnetic field, and a plurality of receivers disposed in the tanks to receive the ion beams. By this arrangement of the tanks and magnetic cores great economy of space is realized; the isotope separating capacity is increased in the order of 16 times that of a conventional calutron although the overall dimensions and the vacuum pumping equipment are only somewhat larger; and the common equipment ay be operated continuously in spite of the fact that one or more of the individual tanks may be removed from operation for adjustment or repair. (auth)
US 2,726,805 ION PUMP – Lawrence, E. O. ; Foster, J. S. Jr.; Dec 13, 1955 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
Large volumes of gas at very low pressures can be electromagnetically pumped by ionizing the gas and causing the ions to move to a remote position where they are neutralized and retained. The ions are formed by introducing the gas into the central portion of a space containing an elongated magnetically collimated arc discharge where they are created at the center of the arc discharge and urged toward the ends of the arc by virtue of the potential gradient which exists. The ions are then collected at the ends of the arc by the cathodes in such a manner that any gas not retained diffuses back into the arc wherein it is again re-ionized and returned to the cathodes. The pump of this design has a very high pumping speed and is capable of attaining a vacuum of 10-7 mm of mercury. (auth)
US 2,727,150 CALUTRONS – Lawrence, E. O.; Dec 13, 1955 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A calutron transmitter having an ion source at high positive potential with respect to the calutron tank is modified to minimize the high voltage current drain to reduce wear and erosion of the electrodes. This is achieved by minimizing the volume of the electric field surrounding the ion source in which electron oscillation may occur, thereby reducing the total path traversed by the oscillating electrons and thus decreasing the overall ionization through the gaseous region immediately surrounding the ion source. The structure for accomplishing this is comprised of an electric shield surrounding the ion source having a concavity formed in opposing walls thereof, a second electric source and having a pair of opposing fins extending therefrom into the concavity and substantially normal to the magnetic field. (auth)
US 2,733,349 CALUTRON – Lawrence, E. O. et al; Jan 31, 1956 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
An electromagnetic device is utilized for moving mechanical elements back and forth between predetermined positions in a calutron. Heretofore, during focusing of a calutron ion beam on the viewing face of a receiver, a suitable door mounted on the receiver is closed in order to avoid contaminating the pocket or pockets of the receiver. This was accomplished by mechanical linkages which required an air seal where they passed through the walls of the tank so as to enable remote operation from the exterior of the tank. By providing a mechanism disposed within a calutron tank and adapted to make an auxiliary electrodynamic or electromagnetic use of the magnetic field in the tank for opening and closing the aforesaid doors, the need for such exteriorly operated mechanical linkage is eliminated. (auth)
US 2,737,799 CONDENSABLE VAPOR EXTRACTION APPARATUS – Lawrence, E. O.; Mar 13, 1956 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A devise has been developed for obtaining a very high vacuum in a large tank. The pumping out operation is considerably expedited when the vacuum pump is augmented by a condensable vapor extraction trap. This trap, containing a coolant such as liquid air or liquid nitrogen, located in the tank condenses out much of the contained vapor, thereby substantially halving the time required for pumping out. Heretofore, these traps containing the condensed vapors have remained in the tank necessitation the constant addition of coolant to keep the vapors condensed. This device permits the removal of such a trap after the desired vacuum has been obtained and seals the opening after removal thus eliminating the need of constantly adding the expensive coolant during the period the vacuum is maintained, which may be many days. (auth)
US 2,754,423 CALUTRONS OF THE MULTIPLE ION BEAM TYPE – Lawrence, E. O.; Jul 10, 1956 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
Design modifications of a calutron of the multiple-ion-beam type are outlined. The single transmitter unit consists of a plurality of mutually insulated gas ionizing devices supplied with gas to be ionized from a single chamber arranged to transmit a plurality of ion beams traversing paths of different curvatures. Means are provided for focusing the ion beams onto the receiver to collect the separated isotopes. (auth)
US 2,773,195 BEAM REGULATOR – Lawrence, E. O. ; Kerns, Q. A.; Dec 4, 1956 (to U.S. Atomic Energy Commission)
A circuit is described for automatically regulating the accelerating voltage of a calutron in order that the ion beam may maintain a stable path to the collector elements, thereby obtaining maximum separation of the isotopic mixture. This beam adjustment may be maintained independent of the spacing of the collector elements, thereby largely overcoming errors in spacing, and maintained independent of sparking or electrical discharge that would tend to reduce separation of the isotopes. (auth)
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