Ernest O. Lawrence and the Cyclotron
‘Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is the namesake and legacy of its founder, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize for Physics for his invention of the cyclotron, … the granddaddy of today's most powerful accelerators. … [Lawrence] was the "father of big science," the first to advance the idea of doing research with multidisciplinary teams of scientists and engineers. …
[The University of California at] Berkeley … was most anxious to develop its small physics department. … Lawrence accepted an associate professor position at Berkeley in 1928, just a few days following his 27th birthday. Within three years, he was made the youngest full professor on the Berkeley faculty [and] invented the cyclotron … . The cyclotron would be patented in Lawrence's name, but he never asked for any royalties, and he encouraged and helped other laboratories throughout the world to build cyclotrons. Lawrence was also the legal inventor of the Calutron isotope separator - but he assigned the patent rights to the U.S. government for a fee of one dollar.
[In] 1952 … Lawrence lobbied for and won approval to establish a second national weapons laboratory at Livermore.'1 ‘Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory celebrated the Lawrence's centennial birthday with a special issue of LLNL's Newsline newsletter that covered Lawrence's myriad accomplishments as well as his approach to "big science," recollections from his son Robert, and articles by former LLNL directors Edward Teller, Herbert York, and John Foster.2
2 Excerpt from Also a Centennial Year for Ernest Orlando Lawrence
Additional information about Ernest Lawrence and his research is available in full-text and on the Web.
The Invention of the Cyclotron
The Production of High Speed Protons Without the Use of High Voltages; Physical Review, Vol. 38, [Issue 4: 834, August 15, 1931
The Production of High Speed Light Ions Without the Use of High Voltages; Physical Review, Vol. 40, Issue 1: 19-35, April 1, 1932
Transmutations of Sodium by Deutons; Physical Review, Vol. 47, Issue 1: 17-27, January 1, 1935
Initial Performance of the 184-Inch Cyclotron of the University of California; Physical Review, Vol. 71, Issue 7: 449-450, April 1,1947
A High Vacuum High Speed Ion Pump, DOE Technical Report , August 27, 1952
Lawrencium – The 103rd element in the Periodic Table, named for E. O. Lawrence
Additional Web Pages:
"'Atom Smasher' Taught Science World to Think Big," Newsline, August 3, 2001.
A Revolutionary Idea that Changed Modern Physics, LBNL
Ernest Lawrence's Cyclotron: Invention for the Ages, LBNL
Lawrence Invents the Cyclotron: 1931, PBS
Cyclotron – Glossary, Jefferson Lab Science Education
Cyclotron – Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University
Also see documents about the invention of the Cyclotron