Patents – Ivar Giaever
(1980 - 2008)

Giaever Page · Resources with Additional Information · Patents (1976, 1977-1979)


US 4,181,501  METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING ANTIBODY LEVELS  --  Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Charles R.; Ward III, William J.; January 1, 1980
A diagnostic device is described employing a solid, rigid diagnostic substrate (having as a part thereof an exposed layer of first immunologically reactive biological particles) in combination with means spaced therefrom for containing a solution of second immunologically reactive biological particles specific to the first particles. Preferably these elements are arranged with the layer of first immunologically reactive biological particles on a glass slide having a metallized surface and facing the containing means with spacing therebetween. This spacing defines a wedge-shaped volume for containing test fluid. With a test fluid in place, after allowing diffusion to occur for a predetermined period of time, the extent of formation of a layer of the second particles (i.e., a second layer) on the first layer is determined. If such a second layer develops, this determination can be related to the concentration of first particles in the test fluid. Presence of the second layer is visible with good contrast to the unaided eye.

US 4,207,670  METHOD FOR MAKING A SOLID STATE NEURON  --  Giaever, Ivar; Cline, Harvey E.; Anthony, Thomas R.; June 17, 1980
Temperature gradient zone melting is utilized to make a solid state neuron which mimics the conducting nerve pulses by a biological nerve cell and its nerve fiber.

US 4,514,500  CELL GROWTH ON LIQUID-LIQUID INTERFACES  --  Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Richard C.; April 30, 1985
Droplets having an electrical charge on the surface thereof are prepared from a first liquid and dispersed in a second liquid, a sterile aqueous tissue culture medium containing serum proteins. The first liquid is non-toxic to living cells and is relatively immiscible with water. The electrical charge on the surfaces of the droplets has a charge density in the range of from about 10 to about 100 charges per square nanometer. Serum protein films adhere to the charged droplets strongly enough to prevent rupture by human fibroblast cells grown thereon.

US 4,619,904  AGGLUTINATING IMMUNOASSAY USING PROTEIN-COATED LIQUID DROPLETS  --  Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Charles R.; October 28, 1986
Small liquid droplets, coated with protein, the protein coating containing molecules of protein that will interact specifically with a select protein, are contacted with a liquid sample to determine the presence or absence of the select protein therein depending upon whether the droplets agglutinate.

US 4,634,681  DIAGNOSTIC METHOD OF DETERMINING THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SELECT PROTEINS IN A LIQUID SAMPLE  --  Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Charles R.; January 6, 1987
An emulsion (in which an aqueous medium contains small liquid droplets coated with a protein that will interact specifically with a select protein) is mixed with a liquid sample, time is allowed for interaction to occur and the mixture is then exposed to a tagged antibody specific to the select protein. After an appropriate hold time the emulsion is broken and the protein that previously covered the disperse droplets becomes concentrated at the surface. The surface is checked for the presence of the tagged antibodies to establish the presence of absence of the select protein.

US 4,672,024 IMMUNOLOGICAL DETECTION DEVICE AND METHOD FOR ITS PREPARATION  --  Giaever, Ivar; Harrigan, Dale; June 9, 1987
An antigen-covered substrate is irradiated with ultraviolet light through a mask after which the exposed areas are rendered no longer antigenic. The unexposed areas retain their antigenic behavior and are available for the occurrence and detection of an immunological reaction.

US 4,920,047  ELECTRICAL DETECTION OF THE IMMUNE REACTION  --  Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Charles R.; April 24, 1990
Test method and apparatus for determining the presence of, the concentration of, or the absence of, immunologically-active substances in liquid media by measuring any change of electrical impedance of an electrode due to the presence of, or the absence of, the reaction of a product of enzyme linked immunologically-active substance and a proper enzyme substrate.

US 5,187,096  CELL SUBSTRATE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SENSOR WITH MULTIPLE ELECTRODE ARRAY  --  Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Charles R.; February 16, 1993
An apparatus and method for monitoring cell-substrate impedance comprises upper and lower substrates each containing strips of metal foil which cross to form well areas. Holes in the upper substrate expose an insulation layer between the upper and lower substrates. Smaller holes in the insulation layer expose the conductive material of the lower substrate. Cylindrical well walls are positioned around each of the holes in the upper substrate and define a cell medium containing well which is exposed to an annular area of conductive foil on the upper substrate, and a small area of conducive foil on the lower substrate. The areas of foil form large and small electrodes which are positioned in an array of wells which can be used to monitor the impedance of various cell cultures under various conditions. A switching device applies currents to the well electrodes and a monitoring device measures the impedance between the electrodes in each well. In this way, cell spreading and motility can be measured.

US 7,332,313  ELECTRICAL WOUNDING ASSAY FOR CELLS IN VITRO  --  Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Charles R.; February 19, 2008
A method and system for electrically wounding and/or monitoring cell activity in vitro. The invention comprises methods and systems for wounding and/or monitoring cells that place a cell culture on a well that has an exposed electrode. The cell culture can then be wounded and/or monitored using the electrode.

US 7,399,631  REAL-TIME IMPEDANCE ASSAY TO FOLLOW THE INVASIVE ACTIVITIES OF METASTATIC CELLS IN CULTURE  --  Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Charles R.; July 15, 2008
The present invention provides methods for the assessment of the metastatic potential of cells by measuring the effect of the cells on the impedance of an electrode. Accordingly, the present invention similarly provides methods for establishing indicators of metastatic potential based on a cell's effect on impedance. Such methods may be employed in vitro or in vivo. In some embodiments, the electrode is coated with endothelial or epithelial cells.


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