Patents – Ivar Giaever
(1977 - 1979)

Giaever Page · Resources with Additional Information · Patents (1976, 1980-2008)


US 4,011,308  METHOD FOR SURFACE IMMUNOLOGICAL DETECTION OF BIOLOGICAL PARTICLES BY THE USE OF TAGGED ANTIBODIES  --  Giaever, Ivar; March 8, 1977
The detection of immunologically reactive biological particles such as viruses, bacteria and other cells is obtained by detection of the occurrence of an immunological reaction on a substrate between the particle to be detected and its tagged antibody. A first immmunologically reactive biological particle is adsorbed onto the surface of the substrate in a particular monomolecular layer pattern, and the substrate is then exposed to a solution suspected of containing select particles to be detected which are specific to the first particle. Finally, the substrate is exposed to a medium containing tagged antibodies to the particle to be detected, and the pattern substrate surface is monitored for the presence of the tags by searching with a tag-sensing instrument for the particular pattern.

US 4,018,886  DIAGNOSTIC METHOD AND DEVICE EMPLOYING PROTEIN-COATED MAGNETIC PARTICLES  --  Giaever, Ivar; April 19, 1977
Small magnetic particles are used to provide large and widely-distributed surface area for separating a select protein from a solution to enable detection thereof when present in low concentrations. The particles are coated with a protein that will interact specifically with the select protein

US 4,041,146  METHOD FOR DETECTION OF BIOLOGICAL PARTICLES  --  Giaever, Ivar; August 9, 1977
A monomolecular layer of first biological particles is absorbed on the surface of a non-reactive substrate. The coated substrate is exposed to a solution suspected of containing second biological particles specific to the first biological particles. Next, the coated substrate is subjected to a tagging step, following which it is exposed to a cleaving agent solution which cleaves the bond between the first and second biological particles. The used cleaving agent solution is then examined by a tag-sensing instrument following possible concentration thereof for determining whether tag-bearing second particles have been removed. The tags may, for example, be radioactive, fluorescent, etc. A supplement is described, wherein the coated substrate is studied with a tag-sensing instrument before and after exposure of the coated substrate to the cleaving agent solution to help provide said determination.

US 4,054,646  METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES AND ANTIGENS  --  Giaever, Ivar; October 18, 1977
Method and apparatus for the detection of antibodies and antigens based upon the effect that any arbitrary antigen will adsorb onto a substrate in a monomolecular layer only, but that a corresponding specific antibody for such arbitrary antigen will bond thereto to form a bimolecular layer on the substrate. A first layer of antigen is adsorbed onto a substrate and the coated substrate is then exposed to a solution suspected of containing the specific antibody of interest. The substrate is then examined to determine whether a monomolecular or bimolecular layer is adhering thereon. Optical, including visual, electrical, and chemical means for examining the coated substrate are disclosed. The method can be reversed by replacing the antigen in each step above with its specifically reacting antibody and by replacing the antibody with its specific antigen.

US 4,092,116  METHOD FOR BINDING ANTIBODIES TO A SURFACE SUCH THAT THEY REMAIN ACTIVE  --  Giaever, Ivar; May 30, 1978
In carrying out an immunological reaction or diagnostic test, an immunologically inert organic compound of sufficient quantity is added to an aqueous medium containing an immunologically reactive antigen. A substrate is then treated with the aqueous medium and on the surface thereof is formed, by adsorption, a monomolecular layer of the reactive antigen molecules separated from each other to distances of several hundred Angstrom by the inert organic molecules. Subsequent immersion of the coated substrate in aqueous media alternately containing an immunologically reactive antibody specific to the antigen, and then again containing the reactive antigen, forms a multimolecular immunologically complexed film on the substrate.

US 4,115,535  DIAGNOSTIC METHOD EMPLOYING A MIXTURE OF NORMALLY SEPARABLE PROTEIN-COATED PARTICLES  --  Giaever, Ivar; September 19, 1978
A mixture of two different kinds of particles having distinctive, different properties is employed for determining the presence of a select protein in, or the absence of a select protein from, a solution. The first kind of particle provides a property facilitating separation, while the second kind of particle provides a property facilitating detection. The particles are coated with the same protein, a protein able to interact specifically with the select protein.

US 4,163,983  SOLID STATE NEURON  --  Giaever, Ivar; Cline, Harvey E.; Anthony, Thomas R.; August 7, 1979
A semiconductor neuron comprises a tunnel diode having a region of recrystallized semiconductor material formed in situ in a columnar structure body of semiconductor material by thermal gradient zone melting. Individual electrical leads are affixed to the body and to both opposing faces of the recrystallized region. A voltage pulse applied between one pair of electrical leads on one surface across the P-N junction will propagate at a predetermined rate through the semiconductor body. After a predetermined delay, the applied pulse will appear across the P-N junction thereby mimicking the conducting nerve pulses by a biological nerve cell and its nerve fiber.

US 4,172,827  METHOD FOR CONCENTRATION AND PURIFICATION OF ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES  --  Giaever, Ivar; October 30, 1979
In carrying out a purification and/or concentration step of antigens or antibodies, a substrate is immersed in a first aqueous medium containing a specifically reacting antigen to coat said substrate with a monomolecular layer of said specifically reacting antigen. The resulting coated substrate is then immersed in a second aqueous medium containing immunologically reactive antibody specific to the antigen in the first aqueous medium to complex said immunologically reactive antibody with said specifically reacting antigen. The resulting substrate is then immersed in a reagent capable of cleaving the immunological bond between said immunologically reactive antibody and said specifically reactive antigen and forming a solution of said immunologically reactive antibody in the immunological bond-cleaving solution and leaving said specifically reacting antigen coated on said substrate. The method can be reversed for preparing a purified concentration of an immunologically reactive antigen whereby a specifically reacting antibody is substituted for the antigen and the corresponding immunologically reactive antigen is substituted for the antibody.


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