Patents – Ivar Giaever
(1976)

Giaever Page · Resources with Additional Information · Patents (1977-1979, 1980-2008)


US 3,960,488 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR QUANTITATIVE SURFACE INHIBITION TEST  -- Giaever, Ivar; June 1, 1976
A metallized slide has adsorbed thereon a first monomolecular layer of particular first immunologically reactive biological particles and is covered with a suitable moisture holding medium. A test solution is then applied along a first edge of the slide, a solution containing second immunologically reactive biological particles specific to the first particles is applied along an edge perpendicular to the first edge, or midway along the slide, and the biological particles in the two solutions diffuse toward each other. The slope or distance from the first edge of a precipitation line formed on the metallized slide at the intersection of the diffused first and second biological particles is related to the concentration of the first particles in the test solution.

US 3,960,489 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINATION OF CONCENTRATION OF IMMUNOLOGICALLY REACTIVE BIOLOGICAL PARTICLES  --  Giaever, Ivar; June 1, 1976
The area of a bimolecular layer formed on a metallized slide is related to the concentration of second immunologically reactive biological particles forming the second layer. The slide initially has adsorbed thereon a first monomolecular layer of first immunologically reactive biological particles specific to the second particles. A second slide is placed on top of the monomolecular layer coated slide and a moistened region between the two slides is exposed to a solution of the second biological particles to form the second monomolecular layer. The biomolecular layer is visible with good contrast to the unaided eye.

US 3,960,490 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING IMMUNOLOGIC REACTIONS BY DIFFUSION IN GEL  --  Giaever, Ivar; June 1, 1976
A thin layer of gel on a metallized solid surface has two or more wells formed through the gel which are subsequently filled with specimens of first and second solutions suspected of respectively containing first and second immunologically reactive biological particles specific to each other. The specimens are allowed to diffuse in the gel, and presence of the first and second biological particles in the solutions forms a complexed protein precipitate line on the metallized solid surface corresponding to the region of intersection of the two diffused specimens and which is visible with good contrast to the unaided eye without the need for staining the gel and provides a durable record of the immunological reaction which forms the precipitate.

US 3,960,491 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING IMMUNOLOGICALLY REACTIVE BIOLOGICAL PARTICLES  --  Giaever, Ivar; June 1, 1976
A metallized solid substrate is covered with a moistened porous paper, and specimens of first and second solutions suspected of respectively containing first and second immunologically reactive biological particles specific to each other are applied to selected areas of the paper and allowed to diffuse therein. Presence of the first and second biological particles in the solutions is indicated with high sensitivity by formation of a complexed protein precipitate line on the metallized substrate along the region of intersection of the two diffused particles and which is visible with good contrast to the unaided eye.

US 3,970,518 MAGNETIC SEPARATION OF BIOLOGICAL PARTICLES  --  Giaever, Ivar; July 20, 1976
Small magnetic particles coated with an antibody layer are used to provide large and widely-distributed surface area for sorting out and separating select viruses, bacteria and other cells from multi-cell, bacteria or virus populations.

US 3,975,238 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING MOLECULES IN SOLUTIONS  --  Giaever, Ivar; Bean, Charles P.; August 17, 1976
A method and apparatus for optically detecting complexing of molecules in solution with surface-bound enzymes comprises slowly varying, in periodic fashion, the surface electrical potential so as to vary correspondingly the pH of the solution at the enzymatic sites through a range in which the Michaelis constant exhibits a relatively large change with pH variation. The potential is also oscillated over a smaller voltage range at a higher frequency. Phase sensitive detection of the output signal of an ellipsometer directed onto the surface provides a signal proportional to the concentration of complexing molecules.

US 3,979,184 DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE FOR VISUALLY DETECTING PRESENCE OF BIOLOGICAL PARTICLES  --  Giaever, Ivar; September 7, 1976
Devices for the detection of biological particles, particularly proteins. Such devices comprise a non-transparent surface of metal (solid metal or a non-transparent coating of metal on some different substrate) covered with a thin transparent first layer of dielectric material, which in turn has a transparent second layer of metal adhered over the outer surface thereof, the transparent layer preferably being in the form of metal globules or metal islets. The detection device as provided to the user will usually have a monomolecular layer of biological particles applied over at least a portion of the transparent layer of metal. Interference of light is obtained useful in distinguishing between monomolecular layers and multi-molecular layers with the unaided eye, when the non-transparent surface metal reflects light relatively poorly and is at least approximately matched to the light reflecting ability of the dielectric material forming the transparent layer thereover.

US 3,979,509 OPAQUE LAYER METHOD FOR DETECTING BIOLOGICAL PARTICLES  --  Giaever, Ivar; September 7, 1976
A monomolecular layer of first biological particles is adsorbed on the surface of a substrate fabricated of virtually any nonreactive solid material, the coated substrate is then exposed to a solution suspected of containing second biological particles specific to the first biological particles, next a porous, opaque layer of nonreactive third particles is formed in the coated substrate, and then the coated substrate is exposed to a cleaving agent solution which cleaves the bond between the first and second biological particles. A visual examination of the coated substrate surface clearly indicates to the naked eye or examination by suitable instrument whether the suspect solution contains the second biological particles by determining whether the opaque layer is complete or a portion common to the second biological particles, has been removed.


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