Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall,
Richard E. Taylor and
the Development of the Quark
The 1990 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Jerome Friedman and Henry Kendall of MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology] and Richard Taylor of SLAC [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics." ...
Friedman, Kendall and Taylor were honored for a series of experiments from 1967 and 1973 that used the then-new two-mile electron linear accelerator at Stanford to study deep inelastic scattering of electrons from protons and neutrons. ...
[T]he SLAC finding of unexpectedly large numbers of electrons being scattered at large angles provided clear evidence for the pointlike constituents within nucleons. These constituents are now understood to be quarks.
Quarks had been predicted in 1964 by Murray Gell-Mann and independently by George Zweig at Caltech. Until the SLAC-MIT experiments no one had produced convincing dynamical evidence from experiment for the existence of quarks inside the proton or neutron.
Additional information about Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall, Richard E. Taylor, and their research is available in full‑text and on the Web.
Experimental Search for a Heavy Electron, DOE Technical Report, September 1967 (Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W.; et al.)
Nucleon Form Factors above 6 GeV, DOE Technical Report, September 1967 (Taylor, R. E.)
Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering: Experimental, DOE Technical Report, October 1971 (Friedman, J. I.)
High‑Energy Single‑Arm Inelastic e‑p and e‑d Scattering at 6 and 10°; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 32, Issue 3 : 118‑121; January 21, 1974 (Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W., et al.)
Neutral‑current x‑distributions, DOE Technical Report, June 1984 (Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W., et al.)
Deep Inelastic Scattering: Acknowledgments (Nobel Laureate Lecture); Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 63, Issue 3: 629; July 1991 (Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W., Taylor, R. E.)
The Discovery of the Point‑Like Structure of Matter, DOE Technical Report, September 2000 (Taylor, R. E.)
Additional Web Pages:
Interview with Richard E. Taylor, Nobelprize.org (video)
Testimony Before the House Committee on Science, pages 38-44, by Jerome I. Friedman, July 25, 2002